本研究以台灣1980-2007年家庭收支調查為實證資料，利用吉尼係數分解與計算百分位家戶所得與消費成長率，探討1990年代中期以後總消費不均度下降的原因。主要研究發現有兩項：一、總消費不均度下降的主要原因，是保健與房租支出對總消費不均度具平均化的作用，且其不均貢獻度愈來愈大。保健支出份額上升，與台灣人口老化及1995年實施的全民健保險制度有關。二、台灣1996年以來總消費不均度下降的現象並非好事。總消費不均度之所以下降，是因為絕大多數家戶的所得無成長而造成整體消費變異性不大，尤其是低所得家戶的所得無成長但保健與房租支出卻相當高。 This study selected information from the Family Income and Expenditure Survey from 1980 to 2007 as empirical data. We decomposed the Gini coefficients and calculated the percentile distribution of the growth rates of household income and expenditure to identify the reasons for the decline in total consumption inequality since the mid-1990s. The results of this study are presented below. First, medical and rent expenses had an equalizing effect on total consumption inequality. The increasing consumption inequality share of medical and health expenses in Taiwan is related to an aging population and the implementation of National Health Insurance in 1995. Second, the decline in total consumption inequality since 1996 is not a positive phenomenon. Most households have experienced an economic decline since 1996. This lack of income growth has limited the growth of total consumption, leading to invariable household expenditure. Particularly, low-income households are spending a substantially greater portion of their income on medical and rent expenses although their income has had minimal growth.