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    Title: Giving and Forgiving in A. S. Pushkin’s The Captain’s Daughter
    Authors: 葉卓爾
    Janicki, Joel
    Keywords: 贈與;禮物動力;互惠;原諒;高尚的花費;忠貞
    gift-giving;";gift-force";reciprocity;forgiveness;noble expenditure;allegiance
    Date: 2012-03
    Issue Date: 2016-08-18 17:32:35 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 相較於其他俄國作者,亞歷山大﹒普希金(1799-1837)更能透過筆下包羅萬象、來自社會各階層的人物,讓俄國人民團結起來。這些人物包括從《鮑里斯﹒郭多諾夫》(1825)中的沙皇,《上尉的女兒》(1836)中的皇后,《尤金﹒奧涅根》(1830)中的農婦保姆,《驛車站長》(1830)中頭腦簡單的政府官員,以及散見於普希金抒情詩作、也是作者本人認為俄國文化之中最詩意的人物──哥薩克反抗軍領袖斯坦卡‧拉辛(Stenka Razin,1630-1671)。普希金對另一位哥薩克反動份子艾米里安‧普加喬夫(1742-1771)也十分著迷,為他寫了一部歷史傳記《普加喬夫傳》(1835)以及一部小說《上尉的女兒》(1836)。後者以回憶錄的方式,由貴族軍官彼得‧葛理聶夫((Pyotr Grinev)以第一人稱的敘述觀點寫成。普希金對普加喬夫的描繪雖忠於歷史紀錄的真切性,卻選擇以藝術為考量。這部小說沿用他典型的精練且節制的書寫風格,並充分運用特定的細節,其中最顯著的例子就是敘事者在一時衝動下,以野兔毛外套當做「禮物」表達他對「嚮導/救援者」──一個幫助他在哥薩克草原的暴風雪中找到遮靜處的流浪者──的謝意。在贈送這份禮物給農民階級的領導人與支持者時,身為貴族的敘事者跨越了階級的障礙,建立了種恆久且互惠的關係。當普加喬夫,這位在對抗地主以及政府的戰爭中自封為俄國人民的領導者,以沙皇之姿再次登場時,他們兩人之間的關係兼具解放與脅迫的本質,陷於分裂的忠貞、忠心、跨越界線、寬恕與包容等複雜的糾葛中。本論文以兩篇探討「贈與」之特質與含義的論文為基礎, 檢視普希金小說中的「贈與」主題,並探討隱匿於禮物與贈與者背後的本質與動機。Russell Belk 在“The Perfect Gift”一文中提供了「完美的禮物」之特質的定義表達並慶賀對另人的無私的愛,贈與是種即興、帶有情感且歡樂的行為,而非事先計畫好且為了達成特定結果的算計。Belk在強調禮物作為友誼的象徵時,也討論贈與者的意圖以及禮物本身所具有的本質上的價值。Marcel Mauss在其對原始社會中之禮物與贈與的創新研究(“Essai surIe don”)中深入的探討,恰可用來分析這部小說中贈與行為引發的意外反饋、互惠精神、以及相互尊重的道德價值在混亂的歷史脈絡中於禮物上的體現。Mauss認為慷慨是在相互尊重下所產生之新倫理的基礎,這樣的基礎可以強化榮譽、無私、和團結的原則,並在給予者與受贈者之間形成種互惠的精神。這種互惠可以確保個人及社群的幸福。Mauss亦創造「高尚的花費」(noble expenditure)詞,意指當眾施予以及款待賓客帶來的喜悅,以及在私人與公開宴席中慷慨的施與受。更精確地說,Mauss對於禮物中所含有的「動力」感到著迷,這個動力可以促成互惠,是種「贈與」的迴旋,進而自相互的情感與瞭解形成強烈的關連,以及社群、人民與國家的團結。本論文亦探討另相關主題原諒,而此主題具現於這部小說的數個父性角色上。「原諒」詞,來自施與的精神,十八世紀的俄國是個階級分明的父系社會,充斥各種違抗、不從、及明顯不思的行為,也是個充滿仇恨與互相殘殺和鬥爭的時代,而原諒可說是對這個時代的一種寬容回應。
    Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837) more than any other Russian writer served to unite the Russian people by giving them an inclusive vision of themselves that drew upon all levels of society—from Tsar as depicted in Boris Godunov (1825) and Empress (The Captain’s Daughter, 1836) to a peasant nanny (Eugene Onegin, 1823-31), simple government functionary (“The Stationmaster” 1830) and Cossack rebel Stenka Razin (1630-1671) (various lyric poems) whom Pushkin referred to as the most poetic figure in Russian culture. Pushkin was fascinated by another Cossack insurrectionist, Emelyan Pugachev (1742-1771), devoting to him both a historical study (A History of Pugachev, 1835) and the novel The Captain’s Daughter (1836) written in the first-person narrative form of a memoir by the nobleman and military officer, Petr Grinev. Though remaining faithful to the historical record, Pushkin chose to be guided by artistic considerations in his portrayal of Pugachev. Ever true to the classical qualities of restraint and conciseness in his writing, Pushkin makes full use of specific details in his narrative, none more so than the “gift” of the hare-skin coat presented by the narrator as an impulsive expression of gratitude to his “guide”/ rescuer, a Cossack wanderer of the steppe who found him shelter from a raging blizzard. In presenting his gift to a leader and supporter of the peasant class, the narrator/nobleman establishes a lasting bond and the spirit of reciprocity that crosses class boundaries. When Pugachev reappears as the “Tsar” himself, the self-proclaimed leader of the Russian people in a war against government and landowners, their bond is both liberating and threatening, bound up with issues of divided allegiance, loyalty, crossing boundaries, forgiveness and magnanimity. The present study draws upon two essays devoted to the characterization and significance of gift-giving to examine the theme of giving in Pushkin’s novel and to explore the nature and motives behind the gift and the givers. Russell Belk (“The Perfect Gift”, 1996) provides a definition of the characteristics of the perfect gift: agapic love as an expression and celebration of love for the other; giving as an act that is spontaneous, affective and celebratory rather than premeditated and calculated to obtain certain ends. Belk takes into account both the intention and the intrinsic value of the gift itself in highlighting the gift-object—sealing a friendship. The insights of Marcel Mauss’s ground-breaking study on the gift and gift-giving in primitive societies (Essai sur le don, 1923-24) provide focus for an analysis in the novel of the unexpected repercussions of the act of giving, the spirit of reciprocity and the ethics of mutual respect embodied in the gift in the context of historical turmoil. Mauss viewed generosity as the basis of a new ethics founded on mutual respect, one that would foster principles of honor, disinterest and solidarity and create a spirit of reciprocity among givers and recipients of gifts. Such a spirit is essential to ensuring the happiness of individuals and communities. He also coined the expression “noble expenditure” referring to the joy of giving in public, of hospitality, and generosity bestowed and received at public and private feasts. More specifically, he was fascinated by the ‘force” in the thing given that lends itself to reciprocity, a circularity of giving that forms strong bonds of mutual affection and understanding and a solidarity to community, people and nation. A second, interrelated theme of forgiveness, as embodied by the many father figures presented in the novel is also explored. Forgiveness, as the very word suggests, is fostered by the spirit of giving, and serves as a magnanimous response to various acts of insubordination, disobedience and apparent disloyalty in the highly stratified and patriarchal Russia of the 18th century at a time of bitter and often unforgiving internecine strife.
    Relation: 文化越界,1(7),23-54
    Cross-cultural Studies
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[Cross-cultural Studies] Journal Articles

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