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    Title: 性別化的青少年友誼網絡與性別角色態度:社會脈絡的影響嗎?
    Gendered adolescent friendship networks and gender role attitudes: Does social context affect?
    Authors: 楊天盾
    Yang, Tien Tun
    Contributors: 熊瑞梅
    Hsung, Ray May
    楊天盾
    Yang, Tien Tun
    Keywords: 性別角色態度
    不同性別組成的班級脈絡
    網絡結構
    地位特性理論
    個人網絡的性別異質性
    gender role attitudes
    class contexts of different gender composition
    network structure
    status characteristics theory
    gender diversity in ego network
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2016-09-02 01:06:16 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 個體在青少年成長階段,學校是其最常接觸的社會脈絡,在學校中與班級同學的同儕關係,對此階段的青少年來說非常重要。青少年友誼發展的過程中,性別一直扮演重要的角色(Leaper 1994)。傳統社會對男女應表現出的行為與態度之不同期待,可能使得男女在個人社會網絡的組成、密度與規模因此產生差異(熊瑞梅 2001)。女生傾向產生關係性地相互依賴的友誼結構,男生則傾向集體性地相互依賴的友誼結構。同時,隨著青春期生理與心理上的變化,青少年更強烈的透過探索自我的方式(Erikson, 1968; Kohlberg & Gilligan, 1971)來排除因這些變化所帶來的不安全感。青少年更渴望透過與同性別同儕的互動來了解自己。在此轉變過程中,個體不只對兩性開始好奇,同時也在探索自我的過去中去釐清有關性別差異的各種行為態度,更多思考在一個社會世界中成為女人或成為男人應有的樣式、行為與態度。而若社會脈絡的影響實際上是透過網絡中與個體互動的對象以及網絡結構的差異造成,那麼男女在同一個脈絡中的互動,就不只是男女合班的脈絡對性別角色態度造成影響。換句話說,在男女合班的脈絡中男女互動的網絡結構才可能是青少年在青春期階段,男女在同一個脈絡中互動的條件下,對於性別角色態度造成影響的可能因素。本研究透過地位特性理論與性別化信仰的假設,認為當性別這個地位特性在脈絡中成為顯著性的影響時,會強化傳統的性別角色態度,讓男女更依照性別角色表現出符合社會期待下男女應有的行為與態度。本研究使用中研院「臺灣青少年成長歷程研究」(Taiwan Youth Project,簡稱TYP)的調查資料作為研究對象。研究結果發現,在不同性別組成的班級脈絡中,男女合班的男生比男生班的男生有更傳統的性別角色態度,男女合班的女生比女生班的女生有更傳統的性別角色態度,顯示出男女合班的班級脈絡確實會因性別地位特性的顯著,更強化傳統性別角色態度的展現。而進一步進到網絡結構中去觀察,同樣在男女合班的班級中,當班級的性別隔離愈低,男女有愈多機會互動,則個體的性別角色態度愈傳統;同樣地,當個人網絡中性別異質性愈高,個體有愈高比例的異性朋友,則個體的性別角色態度愈傳統。這樣的結果發現,證實脈絡背後所存在的網絡結構所產生的可能影響。而單一性別的班級脈絡中,男生的網絡結構呈現集體中心性與階層性的特質,而女生的網絡結構則沒有。愈位於集體中心性核心結構位置的個體有較傳統的性別角色態度。在動態網絡的分析中,雖然網絡結構對性別角色態度變化的影響沒有顯著,但仍然可以發現不同的變化趨勢。性別隔離高的班級,性別角色態度平均相似性是正值,代表個體的性別角色態度會受到個體朋友平均的性別角色態度影響;但性別隔離低的班級卻是負值,代表個體的性別角色態度不受影響。這樣的結果,本研究認為是受到性別介入的影響,這也符合上述地位特性理論的假設,當男女更多機會互動時,不是消除差異使彼此愈來愈相似,反而透過更多互動,更強化了性別社會化的過程,表現出更符合傳統性別角色態度規範下的行為與態度。
    During the life course of adolescents’ growing up, the school is the social context the most contacted by students and peer relationships among classmates at school are very important for adolescents. Gender always plays an important role for friendship development of adolescents(Leaper 1994). Different behaviors and attitudes exhibited by men and women from different traditional social expectations can make the difference between men and women in their composition of individual social networks(Hsung 2001). Girls tend to build relationally interdependent friendship structure and boys tend to build collectively interdependent friendship structure. At the same time, with the physical and mental changes of puberty, adolescents use the way that to explore themselves more to reduce the insecurity from the change(Erikson, 1968; Kohlberg & Gilligan, 1971). Adolescents are eager to understand themselves through interacting with the same gender peers. During this transformation, the individuals not only begin to wonder about sex but also clarify all kinds of different behaviors and attitudes about gender, and think more about the pattern a woman or man should perform. If the effects of social context actually are caused by whom interacting with in the social networks of class and the difference of network structure, it is more important that the network structure of interacting with different gender actors is a plausible factor. In this study, we use the assumption of status characteristics theory and gender(status)beliefs. When the gender status is significant in the context, it will reinforce traditional gender role attitudes and makes boys and girls more consistent with the behaviors and attitudes that social expectations for a woman or man should perform. This study use the data from Taiwan Youth Project(TYP)of Academia Sinica. The result shows that boys in mixed-gender class have more traditional gender role attitudes than boys in single-gender(all-boys)class, and girls in mixed-gender class have more traditional gender role attitudes than girls in single-gender(all-girls)class. Further, we observe the network structures and discover in mixed-gender class that when the gender segregation in class is lower, individuals have more traditional gender role attitudes;when the gender diversity in ego network is higher, individuals also have more traditional gender role attitudes. The result shows the network structure of interacting with different gender actors matters. In single-gender class, male network structure exhibits collectively central and hierarchical characteristics but female network structure does not. Individuals in core structure position that have more traditional gender role attitudes. In dynamic network, although there is no significance between network structure and the change of gender role attitudes, we still can find different changing tendencies. The gender segregation in class is higher, and the average similarity in gender role attitudes is positive. It means that individual gender role attitudes will be affected by their friends. But the gender segregation in class is lower, and the average similarity in gender role attitudes is negative. We think the different results are because of gender intervention. The answers are consistent with the assumption of status characteristics theory. When boys and girls have more opportunities to interact with each other, their differences will not be reduced. On the contrary, they have more opportunities to interact that enhance gender socialization process, and showing more consistent with the norms of traditional gender role attitudes.
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