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    Title: 俄羅斯服務貿易之研究
    The Study on Russia's Trade in Services
    Authors: 李宜軒
    Lee, Yi Hsuan
    Contributors: 魏百谷
    Wei, Pai Ku
    李宜軒
    Lee, Yi Hsuan
    Keywords: 俄羅斯
    服務貿易
    競爭力
    WTO
    Russia
    trade in services
    competitiveness
    WTO
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2016-09-02 01:10:54 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   經濟全球化帶動了全球服務貿易的發展,使其在各國經濟的地位日漸重要,服務貿易的發展及服務貿易競爭力之分析與研究便成為重要議題。自蘇聯解體以來,俄羅斯服務業逐漸成長,帶動了服務貿易的發展,無論是總量或成長率皆呈現上升趨勢,同時,俄羅斯於2012年加入WTO,更為其服務貿易之發展帶來契機。
      本研究以質化方法探討俄羅斯服務貿易之發展現況,並分析俄羅斯加入WTO時對服務貿易所作之承諾,最後再以貿易競爭力指標(TC指數)輔以顯示性比較優勢指標(RCA指數),對俄羅斯2006年至2015年之服務貿易競爭力做實證分析。
      研究結果顯示,這段時間內俄羅斯服務貿易各項主要指標乃由進口所主導,並呈現貿易逆差之局勢;而俄羅斯加入WTO時,對於其發展較落後的服務貿易項目如金融服務設定有較多的保護措施及年限,對於其發展較佳之服務貿易項目如運輸服務則開放較多。此外,在服務貿易競爭力方面,俄羅斯整體服務貿易國際競爭力與出口競爭力皆偏弱,且在傳統服務貿易產業上較具有比較優勢。其中,商品相關服務及運輸服務是俄羅斯較具國際競爭力之項目,營造服務則具有較佳之出口競爭力;此外,金融服務、專利及知識產權服務則是俄羅斯國際競爭力最弱之項目。
    Economic globalization has furthered the development of trade in services around the world, such that it has come to play an increasingly important role in national economies. Therefore, the development and competitiveness of trade in services has become an important issue to be analyzed and researched. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the constant growth of the service sector has led to the development of trade in services, which has an upward trend both in total volume and growth rate. Meanwhile, the accession of Russia to the WTO in 2012 has brought even more opportunities for the development of trade in services.
    In this study, a qualitative method is used to explore the current state of the development of trade in services and to analyze the commitments that Russia made in relation to trade in services upon its accession to the WTO. Finally, the Trade Competitiveness Index (TC Index) is used in combination with the Revealed Comparative Advantage Index (RCA Index) to empirically analyze Russia’s trade competitiveness between 2006 and 2015.
    The results demonstrate that the main indexes of Russia’s trade in services were dominated by imports during this period, as well as present its state of trade deficit. Following Russia’s accession to the WTO, the Russian government has on the one hand set more safeguard measures and a longer duration for trade in service items which are less developed, such as financial services, and on the other hand, opened the trade in service items which are better developed, such as transport. In addition, in terms of the competitiveness of trade in services, Russia is weaker both in overall international competitiveness of trade in services and export competitiveness, and enjoys greater comparative advantage in the traditional sectors of trade in services, among which goods-related services and transport are items of greater international competitiveness and construction are of greater export competitiveness. However, financial services, along with charges for the use of intellectual property are the items for which Russia experiences the weakest international competitiveness.
    Reference: 壹、 中文文獻
    一、 專書
    林紅,中國服務貿易競爭力研究-旅遊業的案例(北京:中國經濟出版社,2009)。
    陳憲、程大中,黏合劑:全球產業與市場整合中的服務貿易(上海:上海社會科學院出版社,2001)。
    萬紅先,中國服務貿易國際競爭力研究(安徽:中國科學技術大學出版社,2008)。
    劉碧珍、陳添枝與翁永和,國際貿易理論與政策,第四版(台北市:雙葉書廊,2014)。
    二、 期刊
    久保庭真彰,「俄羅斯經濟的轉折點與『俄羅斯病』」,俄羅斯研究,第1期(2012),頁40-91。
    于曉麗,「俄羅斯加入世貿組織問題論析」,俄羅斯學刊,第二卷第7期(2012),頁41-48。
    朱美智,「南韓服務貿易現況與促進服務出口主要政策-兼論對台灣之啟示」,國際金融參考資料,第67輯,頁65-84。
    李建民,「俄羅斯『入世』及其對中俄經貿合作的影響」,俄羅斯中亞東歐市場,第2期(2012),頁1-4。
    李建民、李永全、A.T. 卡布耶夫、農雪梅、陳玉榮、王憲舉、盛世良、王樹村、萬青松、李東、A.A. 古辛、徐向梅、周延麗、王兵銀、肖斌、張弘、楊進與張昊琦,「歐亞經濟聯盟:理想與現實」,歐亞經濟,第3期(2015),頁1-127。
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    宋艷梅,「俄羅斯加入世貿組織對改善外資環境的影響」,東北亞論壇,第4期(2014),頁109-116。
    徐遵慈,「俄羅斯加入WTO二年之回顧:挑戰與前瞻」,台俄經貿,第15期(2014),頁8-13。
    張健榮,「俄羅斯入世及其影響」,國際關係研究,第2期(2013),頁104-114。
    張蕊,「加入WTO對俄羅斯服務業發展的影響分析」,北方經貿,第4期(2012),頁10-11。
    陳逸潔,「俄羅斯加入WTO之經濟效益分析」,國際經濟情勢雙週報,第1763期(2012),頁5-13。
    劉薇娜,「俄羅斯服務貿易結構變動分析」,財經問題研究,第7期(2012),頁100-105。
    三、 學位論文
    李亞璇,「論服務分類W/120分類議題之解決途徑」,國立政治大學國際經營與貿易研究所碩士論文(2014)。
    易婉容,「東協五國服務貿易競爭力與自由化之研究」,國立政治大學國家發展研究所碩士論文(2014)。
    邱惟萱,「上海合作組織的經貿合作研究」,國立政治大學俄羅斯研究所碩士論文(2012)。
    周靜言,「後危機時代俄羅斯產業政策調整研究」,遼寧大學轉軌經濟學博士論文(2014)。
    熊慧鵬,「俄羅斯加入世貿組織之進程與影響」,國立政治大學俄羅斯研究所碩士論文(2007)。
    劉蓮娜,「俄羅斯加入世界貿易組織後面臨的機遇與挑戰問題研究」,對外經濟貿易大學國際貿易學博士論文(2015)。
    藍逸丞,「俄羅斯與喬治亞貪腐之比較研究」,國立政治大學俄羅斯研究所碩士論文(2014)。
    四、 網路資料
    『我常駐WTO代表團撰擬「俄羅斯加入WTO為多邊貿易體系帶來的商機與挑戰」』,<http://www.pcc.gov.tw/pccap2/BIZSfront/MenuContent.do?site=002&bid=BIZS_C10112676> (2016.07.11)
    常駐世界貿易組織代表團,<http://www.roc-taiwan.org/ct.asp?xItem=550886&CtNode=5978&mp=501&xp1=>,(2016.01.22)
    黃仿玉,「俄羅斯創新政策之研究」,國家發展委員會,    <ws.ndc.gov.tw/Download.ashx?u...n...icon=..pdf>(2012),頁335-388。(2016.02.04)
    梁海明,「俄羅斯為何對『一帶一路』疑慮重重」,鉅亨網,
    , <http://news.cnyes.com/Content/20160516/20160516100011000409447.shtml>.(2016.06.10)
    經濟部投資業務處,「俄羅斯投資環境簡介」,中華民國廠商海外投資叢書(2015)。(2016.07.01)
    聯合國、歐洲聯盟統計局、國際貨幣基金組織、經濟合作與發展組織、聯合國貿易和發展會議、世界旅遊組織和世界貿易組織,「國際服務貿易統計手冊2010」。(2016.06.23)
    譚晶晶、臧曉程,「盤點上海合作組織成員國總理第十四次會議成果」,新華網,<http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2015-12/15/c_1117471020.htm >(2016.06.14)

    貳、 英文文獻
    一、 專書
    Shelp, Ronald K., Service Industries and Economic Development: Case Studies in Technology Transfer(New York: Praeger Publishers, 1984).
    二、 期刊
    Balassa, Bela,“Trade Liberalisation and “Revealed” Comparative Advantage”,The Manchester School, Vol. 33, No. 2( 1965), pp. 99-123.
    Biryukova, O. V., “Russia Knowledge-Intensive Services in International Trade”, Studies on Russian Economic Development, vol.25, No.1(2014), pp.77-83.
    Deardorff, Alan V., “Comparative Advantage and International Trade and Investment in Services”, in Robert M. Stern ed., Trade and Investment in Services( Toronto: Ontario Economic Council, 1985), pp.39-71.
    Dick, Rolf and Hugo Dicke, “Patterns of trade in knowledge,” in H.Giersch ed., International economic development and resource transfer (Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1979), pp. 335-358.
    Evseev, Viacheslav and Ross Wilson, “WTO Accession: Implications for Russia”, Russian Analytical Digest, No.119 (2012), pp.11-16.
    Hindley, Brian, Alasdair Smith, “Comparative Advantage and Trade in Services”, The World Ecomomy, Vol.7, No.4 (1984), pp.369-390.
    Jensen, Jesper, Thomas Rutherford and David Tarr, “The Importance of Telecommunications Reform in Russia’s Accession to the WTO”, Eastern European Economics, Vol.44, No.1 (2006), pp.25-58.
    Kirsanov, Sergei and Evgeny Safonov, “The Consequence of Russia’s Accession to WTO: Conclusions and Recommendations”, European Scientific Journal, Vol.10, No.16 (2014), pp.195-210.
    Krugman, Paul, “Increasing Returns, Monopolistic Competition, and International Trade”, Journal of International Economics, Vol.9 (1979), pp.469-479.
    Krugman, Paul, “Scale Economics, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade”, The American Economic Review, Vol. 70, No.5 (1980), pp.950-959.
    Melvin, James R., “Trade in Producer Services: A Heckscher- Ohlin Approach”, Journal of Political Economy, Vol.97, No.5 (1989), pp.1180-1196.
    三、 網路資料
    Cooper, William H., “Russia’s Accession to the WTO and Its Implications for the United States”, Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, < https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R42085.pdf>. (30.03.2016)
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    Jensen, Jesper, Thomas Rutherford, and David Tarr, “Economy-Wide and Sector Effects of Russia’s Accession to the WTO”, World Bank, 2004, < http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Accession/Jensen-Rutherford-Tarr_effectsaccession.pdf >.( 08.01.2016)
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    Rutherford, Thomas and David Tarr, “Regional Impacts of Russia’s Accession to the World Trade Organization”, World Bank, < http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Internal-Training/287823-1116536061368/Regional_ImpactsOfRussiasAccessionToTheWTO.pdf >.(19.02.2016)
    Rutherford, Thomas and David Tarr, “Russia’s WTO Accession: What are the macroeconomics, sector, labor market and household effects?”, World Bank, < http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Accession/Rutherford-Tarr_russia-macro-effects.pdf >. (26.01.2016)
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    四、 網站資料
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    五、 統計資料庫
    Bank of Russia, < http://www.cbr.ru/eng/statistics/?Prtid=svs>
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    <http://qdd.oecd.org/subject.aspx?Subject=063bee63-475f-427c-8b50-c19bffa7392d >
    WTO International Statistics database,< http://stat.wto.org/Home/WSDBHome.aspx?Language=>
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    俄羅斯研究所
    100263008
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0100263008
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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