《古事記》為日本最古老的文學作品，亦為研究日本歷史思想之重要文獻，該書記載日本的國家形成與皇室系譜，並對人類的生命死亡有著詳細記述。日本學者以此作品發展出日本獨特之宗教──神道，並自神道思想立場解說日本民族傳統的生命觀與死亡觀。然在這部經典名著中，處處可見中國的古代思想，更可窺視中國儒道對其思想之深刻影響。《古事記》與中國古代的思想究竟有何淵源？儒道對日本人的死生觀又有何具體影響？本文以《古事記》中記載的「黃泉國」為例，說明日本民族死生觀之由來，並自儒道之觀點，論述其與中國思想之關連。另自比較思想之視點，探討中國人與日本人對於死亡看法之差異。期藉此研究，廓清古代日本人之死生觀，並藉以探求中日二國死生觀之關連差異。 Kojiki is the oldest literary work in Japan, and it is also an important document for the study of Japanese history and thoughts, because it records the formation of the country and the genealogy of the royal family and it has detailed accounts of man’s life and death. Japanese scholars based themselves on this work and developed a uniquely Japanese religion—shintoism, from which point of view they explained the philosophy of life and the philosophy of death in Japanese ethnic tradition. However, in this classic, one can see it replete with ancient Chinese thoughts and the profound influence of Confucianism and Taoism. What is the relationship between Kojiki and ancient Chinese thoughts? What concrete influences does Confucianism and Taoism have on Japanese philosophy of life and death? This paper uses Yomotsukuni in Kojiki to explicate the origin of the Japanese philosophy of life and death, and discusses its relationship with Chinese thoughts from the perspective of Confucianism and Taoism. In addition, from the comparative point of view, it explores the differences between Chinese and Japanese philosophies of life and death. It is hoped that by means of this study, Japanese philosophy of life and death in the ancient time and the relationship and difference between Chinese and Japanese philosophies of life and death can be clarified.