中國與日本，由於地理位置毗鄰且社會結構相近，有著類似的風土民情，亦有相近之思想文化。二國自古以來即有頻繁之接觸而進行文化交流，日本許多傳統思想文化都是來自古代的中國，最具代表日本文化精神代表之武士道，亦能發現深受中國儒家思想影響之處。但眾所周知，武士道思想在於美化死亡，強調武士面臨生死抉擇時應從容就義、視死如歸；然在中國的各家思想中，卻極少論及死亡，與武士道關源之一的儒家思想，對死亡更採取著避而不談之態度。武士道思想究竟如何由來？其與儒家思想有何淵源又有何差異？這種差異形成之因且有何意義？本文考究武士道相關文獻，說明其思想之起源及所蘊涵之意義；另自死生觀之觀點，以比較思想論之方法，說明武士道與儒家思想之差異。期藉此研究，對於代表日本傳統文化精神之武士道能有所理解，並對中日文化思想之差異，有更進一步之認識。 Because of the close geographical location and similar social structure, China and Japan have similar customs, social practices, thoughts, and cultures. Ever since the ancient times, the two countries have had frequent contacts and exchanges of commerce and culture. Many parts of traditional Japanese thought and culture are from ancient China. The most representative spirit of Japanese culture, bushido, also manifests impacts from the Confucian thought in China. It is well acknowledged that the bushido spirit lies in the beautification of death with an emphasis on the samurai’s calmness and determination in face of death; however, Confucianism hardly deals with death. In fact, Confucianism has an evasive attitude towards the issue of death. From where is the bushido thought? What is the precise relationship between bushido and Confucianism? What are the differences between the two? What is the significance of the causes that led to the differences? This paper examines the studies related to bushido and explicates the origin and significance of the bushido spirit; furthermore, this paper employs the method of comparative thought to explain the differences between bushido and Confucianism from the perspectives of philosophy of life and death. It is hoped that this research can help clarify the understanding of the representative of the traditional Japanese cultural spirit, bushido, and further promote the recognition of the differences between Chinese and Japanese cultures and thoughts.