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    政大機構典藏 > 政大學報 > 第65期 > 期刊論文 >  Item 140.119/102859
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    題名: Muslims in China Prior to the Qing Dynasty(1644-1911 AD), a Historical Survey
    作者: 林長寬
    Lin, Chang-Kuan
    貢獻者: 阿語系
    日期: 1992-09
    上傳時間: 2016-10-17 15:30:31 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 中國之伊斯蘭及穆斯林歷史一直被中外伊斯蘭學者所忽略,至今尚未有一較完整且具科學性的現代著作問世。(西方之研究自十九世紀末、二十世紀初以來就產生研究斷層。而中國大陸回族學者之著作與台灣坊間之有關書籍亦缺乏科學批判研究精神,且大多為人云亦云之襲作。)本文之目的在於提供中國穆斯林歷史起自唐代下至明末的背景探討,並藉以拋磚引玉,期能引起更深入的研究。由於滿清時代之穆斯林情況較為複雜,需要較長篇幅專題探就故不在本文內研討。伊斯蘭之傳入中國的時間與途徑中外至今尚無定論,然在唐代已有穆斯林或以經商或以外交目的進入中國。此些人以蕃客自居而享有唐朝廷之禮遇,且自組成一非漢人社會。宋朝期間穆斯林陸續移入中國尤以南宋為甚,且以商賈居多。多數穆斯林商人遂逐漸定居中國繁衍。蒙古西征中亞伊斯蘭國家後,吸收不少穆斯林為其所用,尤以軍事、經濟方面為最。更大量穆斯林繼而隨著蒙古入主中國而移入中原,進而散布至中國各角落。由於蒙古帝國之建立有賴穆斯林之助,故穆斯林在蒙古元朝享有高於漢人而僅次於蒙古人之某些特權。然而明朝創立之後,朱元璋鼎立推行漢化政策,穆斯林亦受影響而逐漸融入漢文化社會,而其信仰之伊斯蘭宗教亦因而蒙上中國色彩,進而演變發展成一獨特之中國伊斯蘭。簡言之,穆斯林在中國歷史演變過程可由「蕃客在中國」至「中國之穆斯林」的過程中探討。
    This article aims to provid a historical survey of Muslims in China prior to the Manchu-Qing dynasty (1644-1911). The history of Chinese Muslims has not been thoroughly studied by modern scholars. This research will shed some light on this important hut neglected field. How did Islam enter China has been an unsolved issue in Islamo-sinology. This is caused by the confusing Chinese sources. However, it is certain that Muslims first migrated to China in the Tang period. During that period, Muslims in China were mainly traders or some envoys who came from Arabia or Central Asia via sea rute or partially by the land silk road. They were treated with honour by the Tang Court. Through the Song period, more Muslims flocked into China from South Arabia and Southeast Asia for the purpose of trade. Many of them became settled in China and assimilated into Chinese society. However, they were still regarded as foreigners by the Han Chinese. The Mongol conquests of Central Asia brought a great number of Muslims into China proper. These Muslims were with various skills. With their assistance, the Mongol-Yuan dynasty in China was established. Thus Muslims secured more privileges than other Chinese peoples, and Muslims played a significant role in the Yuan politics and economics. Under the Ming rule, Muslims' social status declined due to central governments policy on minorities. The founder of Ming dynasty stipulated strict law which was to sinicise non--Han people, to eliminate foreign elements in Chinese society. As a result. Muslims were forced to adopt Chinese traditions and assimilate further into Chinese society, and their religion became syncretised with Chinese elements.
     
    關聯: 國立政治大學學報, 65,525-571
    資料類型: article
    顯示於類別:[第65期] 期刊論文

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