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    政大機構典藏 > 學術期刊 > 廣告學研究 > 期刊論文 >  Item 140.119/103758
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/103758

    Title: 消息來源組織與媒介真實之建構--組織文化與組織框架的觀點
    Other Titles: News Sources & Construction Of News Reality - Perspectives on Organizational Culture and Media Framing
    Authors: 臧國仁
    Keywords: 消息來源組織;媒介真實建構;組織文化;組織框架
    Date: 1998-07
    Issue Date: 2016-11-10 15:05:05 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 有關消息來源與新聞媒體互動之研究論述過去已累積甚多,如新聞學相關研究即常發現,新聞媒體對某些特定消息來源有「偏向」之嫌:較常刊登官方消息,對建制性組織較為青睞,其背景愈屬男性、主管、菁英階層,愈易被新聞媒體採用。另一方面,過去文獻也證實消息來源常利用公關稿件或記者會等方式接近媒體,增加被報導的機會,或使用策略規劃方式藉以在媒體上曝光,甚至影響新聞報導內容之走向。本研究試圖進一步探析消息來源內部設定策略的過程,認為組織文化乃影響組織媒介策略的原動力。組織文化在本研究中定義為一組基本假設,由組織內的特定人士(如領導階層)設定並用來解決適應外界或內在整合等問題。由於這些假設在組織中實施良好而被傳授給新的成員,作為解決新問題時的正確思考與認知方式。由此,本研究追述過去研究,分別探討組織文化、組織策略、組織溝通三者如何形成互動與合作關係,並影響組織媒介策略之訂定。本研究並討論何謂組織媒介框架,以及此一框架與組織文化間的關連。最後,本研究分析消息來源之媒介框架與媒介真實建構的相關性。總結來說,本研究認為,消息來源的組織內部機制才是媒介策略的制訂起源。各組織與新聞媒介進行不同形式的來往互動,乃肇因於其對新聞媒體如何建構真實有不同看法或假設,如有些組織視媒介為宣傳工具,另些組織則視媒介為與社會大眾溝通的管道。這種不同假設或觀點隨後在組之內產生不同媒介溝通策略,進而影響了消息來源組織與媒體往來時的動態關係:有些消息來源組織樂意提供具體訊息給新聞媒體,兩者互動頻繁,另些組織則習慣躲避或欺騙新聞媒體,長久造成媒體之不信任,因而產生「新聞失調」現象。因此,消息來源與新聞媒體之間的互動,實係源自其組織內部對媒體所具有的不同信念,因而影響其所採取的媒介策略。框架概念在此可視為是組織依據內部信念或價值觀,針對議題所組合成的特殊思考結構與符號特徵,或是觀察世界的一種特殊意義論釋方式。消息來源組織可依照其對社會真實所建構的特殊觀點,試圖尋找並與其他相關信念組織結盟,形成共識動員。另一方面,消息來源組織亦可藉由媒介報導擴大聲勢,使其觀點獲得民眾支持。整體觀之,本研究建議將新聞媒體視為是社會各組織間相互競爭以獲取意義建構的場域,消息來源是否能清晰掌握新聞媒體的常規特質,以及其他相對組織的意義建構能力,均可成為媒介框架是否成功的關鍵因素。
    The plethora of recent research has found that the news media relied rather heavily on a certain group of sources in their daily routines, anmely, those with elite background, male government official, and organizations with institutional status. Studies also showed that people who have easier access to the media would enjoy better opportunities to be reported. For instance, organizations included in the range of the reporter's beats would get more coverage than most others without such routine attentions. The purpose of this paper, then, is trying to further explore the internal process of an organization's media strategy. We assume that it was the concept of organizational culture that initiates such strategy. The organizational culture is defined in this study, following Schein and others, as a pattern of basic assumptions that is invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. After briefly tracing the past literature on organizational culture, this paper continues its efforts by examining organizational strategies and organizational communication, the two main themes that have been broadly considered as closely linked to organizational culture before any media strategy can be formed in an organization. In a sense, this paper treats media strategy more as a lower-level operating action based on guidelines elicited from values retained in the organizational culture, organizational strategies, and organizational communication. Finally, this paper applies the concept of media framing to the exploration of the source's media strategies since we consider framing similar to the basic assumptions inherent in the organizational culture. Here framing is defined as the central organizing idea of a strategy which provides and transforms meanings of an event based on the organization's values. In this paper, we consider the media as a public arena where different frames compete against each other to maintain the legitimacy of the meaning interpreta- tion. And it is important for the organization to unite 'friendly social frames' and to grasp the media's support. If this theoretical hypothesis is correct, then the publicity process of any organization can no longer be regarded as technical skills; rather, it is a cultural struggle among antagonists concerning social issues.
    Relation: 廣告學研究, 11, 69-116
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[廣告學研究] 期刊論文

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