Spatial distribution is an important dimension of research into the development of high technology (hi-tech) industries due to the knowledge-intensive features of these industries. This paper separates the agglomeration effects and the spillover effects, and analyzes the evolution of the distribution of China's hi-tech sub-industries from the mid-1990s by combining the geographic concentration index (locational Gini coefficient, concentration ratio) and spatial econometrics (Moran's I). The results reveal that firstly, most hi-tech subindustries tend to be concentrated in the eastern coastal regions of China, while there are significant spillover effects from the eastern coastal regions to the central regions. The development model based on national hi-tech industrial zones is the primary reason for industrial agglomeration, and it is the result of both government direction and market rules. Secondly, on the macro-level, there has been a certain amount of geographical concentration and interregional division of labor among China's hi-tech industries, but there is low intraregional specialization. Furthermore, in contrast to the findings of most of previous studies, the distribution of China's hi-tech industries and that of its innovation capacity share similar evolutionary trends, although they do not completely overlap.