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|Title: ||經由暴力方式的證悟 :藏傳佛教普巴金剛修持的轉變|
Enlightenment through Violent Means :The Transformation of the Practice of Vajrakīlaya in Tibetan Buddhism
|Contributors: ||Antonio Terrone|
|Issue Date: ||2017-02-08 16:39:43 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||在這項研究中，我從歷史和人類學的角度，以及個人參與藏傳佛教普巴金剛(Vajrakīlaya) 儀式所觀察收集的資料，洞察普巴金剛，這個古老密續(Tantric)儀式古今的實踐方式。此外也採用人類學家維克多·特納（1920-1983）的儀式理論 －儀式和儀式的通過，套用於普巴金剛儀式中。其結果相當發人深思。從西方人類學家的角度來看，將普巴金剛(Vajrakīlaya)儀式進行分類是一個有趣的嘗試。我個人特別論證特納的理論 － “兩可之間 － 通過儀式中的阈限階段”（Betwixt and Between：The Liminal Period in Rites de Passage）等同於普巴金剛儀式中所謂“解脫殺戮”(liberation killing) 的部分。我認為閾限 (liminality)和兩可之間(Betwixt and Between) 最能表達西藏佛教中所謂解脫(藏語:drölwa －解脫必須經由毀滅)的過程。普巴金剛儀式被認為有助於個人解脫，而其達成解脫的方式是一個相當爭議的主題。普巴金剛儀式包括分離，過渡和併入三階段的儀式應用。解脫揮舞著金剛杵(phurba 即智慧武器)，毀滅解脫的障礙，從而轉化成一個更好的生活。藏傳佛教將暴力毀滅合理化為 “解脫殺戮”。閾限 (liminality) 等於“解脫殺戮”。“解脫殺戮”(liberation killing) 它將障礙或敵人進行轉變，並且超越現狀並進入更好的境界。此外，我認為，具有本初智慧(primordial wisdom)的普巴金剛能夠將“憤怒”轉變為“同情”，以實現“解脫殺戮”。最後，由於藏傳佛教傳入台灣之後，普巴金剛的儀式也吸引了許多信眾，但藏傳佛教的宗教師為了迎合台灣信眾的要求，避而不談普巴金剛原本儀式的始末，只強調透過普巴金剛的儀式一定能利益信眾們的願望。這項研究的結論是，雖然在21世紀的台北，宗教師故意忽略了普巴金剛原本的“解脫殺戮”的意涵，但卻被消除當前實現繁榮和擁有財富的任何障礙，更多的追求現世安樂的任務所取代。|
In this study, I offer some insights into the ancient Tantric ritual practice of Vajrakīlaya, by looking at it from historical and anthropological perspectives and as well as data gathered from my participant observation. I am also particularly interested in testing some of the most popular theories advanced by anthropologist Victor W. Turner (1920-1983), namely those on rituals and rites of passage, which I found inspiring and thought-provoking. The classification of the ritual of Vajrakīlaya from the viewpoint of a Western anthropologist is an interesting endeavor. Turner’s theoretical output expands especially in Betwixt and Between: The Liminal Period in Rites de Passage, where he highlights the status system of the passenger in rituals. I argue that the notion of “Betwixt and Between” or “liminality” in the Tibetan Buddhist context is best represented by the ritual process of drölwa, which can be glossed in English as “liberation killing,” a central, yet controversial theme in the Vajrakīlaya's ritual. The Vajrakīlaya ritual is believed to assist in one’s advancement toward personal liberation and includes the application of three aspects or rites of separation, transition, and incorporation. Wielding the phurba, the wisdom weapon, Vajrakīlaya kills the sacrificial victim to get rid of obstructions and thus transforming it into a better being. This violent killing is legitimized as “liberation killing” in Tibetan Buddhism. “Liminality” equals to “liberation killing,” which provides the transformation to the effigy (enemy) to transcend to a better realm. In addition, I would argue that Vajrakīlaya, endowed with primordial wisdom is able to transform “wrath” into “compassion” to implement “liberation killing”.
Finally, since the introduction and popularity of Tibetan Buddhism in Taiwan, the rite of Vajrakīlaya has increasingly attracted devotees and Tibetan Buddhist teachers have found ways to adapt it to the demands of the new faithful. Mostly oblivious of the ambivalent nature of Vajrakīlaya, the participants aspire and pursue their personal interests through the ritual. This study concludes that while the aspects of “liberation killing” intrinsic to Vajrakīlaya are intentionally omitted in 21st century Taipei, they have nevertheless been substituted by more mundane quests including the removal of any obstacles preventing the achievement of prosperity and wealth in the present.
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|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0103156008|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[宗教研究所] 學位論文|
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