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    Title: 台灣汽車電子產業價值創新與競爭策略以A車電公司為例
    Innovation and competition strategy of Taiwan's automotive electronics industry : a case study of A technology corporation
    Authors: 吳憲忠
    Wu, Hsien Chung
    Contributors: 郭炳伸
    吳憲忠
    Wu, Hsien Chung
    Keywords: 汽車電子零組件
    二階供應商
    台灣汽車車子市場狀況
    台灣汽車電子五力分析
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2017-05-01 11:24:06 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 汽車產業是僅次於房地產最大產業,去年(2016)全球小型車輛(Light Duty)新車銷售量已突破九千萬輛,來到九千零四十萬輛。汽車的發明使得人與人之間的距離縮短到極致。長期以來,汽車一直只是單純的交通工具,頂多就是將冷氣和音響裝到汽車上,讓駕駛較為舒適、不致無聊。然而,隨著資訊電子技術發展一日千里,資訊電子已快速取代以傳統機械為主的汽車零配件成為汽車提升性能、效率、安全,以及娛樂功能的最重要推動力,也使汽車愈來愈高科技化。如今,汽車各類電子已經廣泛應用在汽車上,這些電子晶片不只用來偵測車體行進時的狀態與傾角、引擎轉速與溫度調節、燃料噴射、自動變速、輪胎壓力等各項基本參數,其他像是讓倒車更安全的倒車雷達、不須要鑰匙就能開車門的指紋辨識防盜系統、即使在高速公路上奔馳也能上網的行動無線寬頻網路、以及車內多媒體影音娛樂系統、GPS衛星導航等等,都是靠電子零組件才能運作。
    汽車電子化被認為是汽車技術發展進程中的一次革命,汽車電子化的程度被看作是現代汽車水平的重要標誌,是用來開發新車型,改進汽車性能最重要的技術措施。汽車業者增加汽車電子設備的數量、促進汽車電子化是奪取未來汽車市場的重要的有效手段。汽車電子產品市場將在汽車產業發展的保障下穩步發展,各類汽車電子產品在汽車中的普及率將持續提高,隨著未來汽車市場的快速發展和汽車電子的價值含量迅速提高,汽車電子產業將形成巨大的經濟規模效應,且汽車電子產品占汽車的成本亦將進一步提高。汽車電子會成為全球資訊業者矚目的焦點,在於電子零配件佔汽車生產成本比例日益升高以及全球汽車電子產業的高度成長。根據工研院IEK統計,2013年全球汽車電子產品市場約1,670億美元,預估到了2019年將倍增達3,011億美元。全球汽車電子產業持續加溫,再加上法規對節能、安全的日益要求、消費者對舒適、對信息娛樂的需求、電動車、無人駕駛等的崛起將大大地刺激對汽車電子未來的成長。這些數據顯示,隨著傳統 3C電子產業的成長逐漸趨緩之際,汽車已成為對電子零組件需求增加最快的一個產業。
    長年以來,政府政策以及台灣廠商主要以3C電子代工市場為定位,享受經濟規模的好處,但產業發展已進入成熟期。高科技產業在高競爭壓力及低毛利的挑戰下,普遍壓縮了獲利的成長空間,電子代工業者紛紛陷入削價競爭的紅海,再加上中國政府對當地電子企業的支持,在資金、資源甚至法令上對當地企業有無比的助益,形成優勢,使得台灣電子產業在內外環境夾擊下更難擴展。汽車電子在台灣琢磨不多,乃是由於汽車電子經濟規模小,對技術、品質要求較一般電子高出甚多且進入門檻高,需要很冗長的開發與投資,是昔日造成台灣企業不願進入的主因。因此,台灣汽車電子產業在國際間是較為陌生的,大部份的技術都被國際大廠或原車廠所掌握。近年來台灣企業以及政府已慢慢了解到全球車輛電子化所帶來的商機,並可為台灣的電子產業於全球汽車電子產業上占有一席之地。車輛電子產業則為台灣3C 產業(Computer, Communication, Consumer Electronics)帶來了創造高利潤空間之曙光,成為另一令人矚目之第4C 產業(Car)。但是因車輛產業有其特殊的供應鏈生態,以及高安全可靠度要求,因此要如何跨足車輛電子,是台灣科技產業中最熱門的話題之一。
    本論文著重在車輛電子零組件、模組產品並以台灣上櫃廠商A公司為例,如何進如嚴苛的汽車電子市場及其進入OE(Original Equipment)之策略,避免紅色供應鏈創造藍海市場及價值。A公司成立於1998年,從事車用電子二極體製造,全球市占率超過51%,第二、三、四名依次為德國BOSCH,日本日立(Hitachi), 日本Sanken電氣。此四家已佔全球新車市場95%以上用量,形成寡占市場生態體系。在A公司未進入此市場前,車用二極體之霸主為德國BOSCH。然而,A公司創立不過十餘年,對汽車產業來說只是初生之苗,如何在短短十年內於嚴苛的車電市場中取得領先地位以贏擊國際大廠,其競爭優勢、戰略戰術策略、經營方向是本論文研究重點之一。再者,A公司近年著手於研發節能環保之新世代電子產品,以期更有效能的電子產品被開發出來。在未來新汽車電子市場中,A公司如何能再創新優勢,其是否能延續既有的競爭策略或有不同戰略作法與國際大廠一較天下,確實值得深入討論。藉由A公司經驗,以國際汽車環境、法規要求、技術、安全性、未來產品發展趨勢、環保節能等各個面向所採取的宏觀策略來提供或建議台灣廠商現有或新進入者如何能切入此汽車電子的利基市場,提出未來台灣汽車電子零組件產業發展方向、影響關鍵零組件主要因素之變化、產業可能面臨問題與解決對策等,以及其所要面對的問題與挑戰提供建議與策略,藉以提供政府相關單位或民間企業在做未來長期計劃政策訂定或商業決策時的參考,並期望能促進台灣廠商在汽車電子產業形成強而有力的供應鏈生態網。
    The automotive industry is becoming the second largest industry in the world. The new car sales of global small vehicles have exceeded 90 million, arriving to 90.4 million in year 2016. The invention of the automobile shortens the distance between people. The automobile has always been just a simple transport for a long time, and it just installs the air-conditioner and audio to the car to make driving more comfortable, not be boring. However, with the rapid development of electronics technology, it has been not only replaced the traditional mechanical-based auto parts but also become the most important driving force to enhance automobiles’ performance, efficiency, safety, and entertainment functions that is making more and more high-tech of automobile. Nowadays, all kinds of electronic vehicles have been widely used in the car, these electronic chips are not only used to detect the moving vehicle of its state and tilt, engine speed and temperature regulation, fuel injection, automatic transmission, tire pressure and other basic parameters. The other vehicle systems like reversing radar, fingerprint identification system, the Internet mobile wireless network on the highway, multimedia entertainment system, GPS satellite Navigation and so on are all relying on electronic components to operate it.
    Automotive electronics is considered a revolution in the development of automotive technology, it is seen as an important indicator of modern vehicle level, using to develop new models, improve the performance of the most important vehicle technical measures. It is an important and effective measure to increase the number of automotive electronic equipment, promote the automotive electronics by automobile manufacturers in order to seize the automobile market in the future. The prevalence of all types of automotive electronics products will continue to increase based on the rapid development in the future of auto market and increase of automotive electronics’ value. Automotive electronics will become the focus in the global information industry due to the increasing proportion of electronic components in automobile production costs, and high growth of the global automotive electronics industry. The auto electronics parts is estimated to account for $ 3,705 in 2015,and increases more than 65% in the total cost of production of an automobile. As for the overall market value is even more astonishing. The global automotive electronics market in 2013 is about 1,670 billion US dollars, and it is estimated to 301.1 billion US dollars according to IEK statistics. The automotive electronics will greatly growth in the future because of the continuing development of the global automotive electronics industry, regulation for energy efficiency and safety, consumer demand for comfort and entertainment, electric cars and unmanned driving, etc. These data show that the automobile electronic components has become the fastest growing industry.
    For many years, government policy and Taiwanese manufacturers is mainly to focus on 3C electronic foundry market, enjoying the benefits of economies scale, but this industry development has already entered a mature period. The electronic foundry industry has plunged into low-price Red Ocean competition because of the high pressure competition and low-margin challenges in high-tech industry, and with China government's support for local electronics companies. All of these factors make Taiwan electronics industry hard to expand it. Taiwan enterprises are unwilling to enter the field of automotive electronics due to the small size of the automotive electronics economy, technology and quality requirements are much higher than general electronic. In addition, it needs a long time to develop and invest because of high threshold entrance. Therefore, Taiwan's automotive electronics industry is relatively unfamiliar in the international market because most of the technologies are possessed by international automakers or the original equipment.
    In recent years, Taiwan enterprises and the government have gradually understood the global automotive electronics will bring some business opportunities, and it would hold a portion of global automotive electronics for Taiwan's electronics industry. The automotive electronics industry not only creates another road for Taiwan’s 3C industry but also becomes the 4C industry (Car). However, the automobile industry has its special supply chain ecology as well as high security and reliability requirements, so how to cross the automotive electronics is one of the most popular topics in Taiwan's technology industry.
    The emphasis of this research paper is on the automotive electronics components and modules, using A Technology Corporation, an OTC company as an example, explaining how to enter into the strict automotive electronics market and the strategies to enter the OE automotives, in order to prevent Red Oceans in supply chain and create values in Blue Oceans. A Technology Corporation was established in November, 1998. Its main product automotive diode stands more than 51% global market share, followed by Germany’s Bosch, Japan’s Hitachi, and Japan’s Sanken. These top 4 suppliers monopolize above 95% of all diodes globally in this oligopoly market. Germany’s Bosch had stood above 50% market share before A Technology Corporation entered the market. With merely 10 years in the auto industry, A Technology Corporation could still be considered as an infant. Another key of this research paper is to explain how A Technology Corporation obtained the leading position, winning over international well known manufacturers, achieving competitive advantage through effective strategy, methodology, tactics, and operations. Furthermore, over recent years A Technology Corporation has been focusing especially more on the development of advanced electronics applications for the new generation in environmental protection and new energy technology for better efficiency.
    In the future of the new automotive electronics market, how A Technology Corporation can re-invent and re-innovate to create new advantages through current competitive strategy or different strategic approach to compete with other international manufacturers, is a topic worthy of discussion. With A Technology Corporation’s experience in automotive regulatory requirements, technology, security, product trends, environmental protection and energy conservation, A Technology Corporation can help offer recommendations to other Taiwan manufacturers or new entrant on how to enter this niche market. A Technology Corporation can also provide advice and strategic directions on future development of the automotive electronics to government agencies and private enterprises, including the impact of change on key components and the challenges this industry faces and potential solutions, for long-term policy planning or decision-making, in turn, promoting Taiwan manufacturers in the automotive electronics industry to form a strong supply chain and network.
    Reference: 中文部份
    1. 陳明哲,動態競爭 Chapter 3 ,Part 2 廠商層次的競爭 2010.04。
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    英文部份
    1. Anfoff,Implanting strategic management,1984。
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    6. The Toyota Way Fieldbook, Jeffrey Liker,David Meier 2005。
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    經營管理碩士學程(EMBA)
    102932003
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0102932003
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[經營管理碩士學程EMBA] 學位論文

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