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    Title: 先秦時代對侵略戰爭的證成
    Authors: 詹康
    Contributors: 哲學系
    Keywords: 湯武革命;孫武;孔子;墨子;孟子;莊子;韓非
    Tang;Zhou Wuwang;Sunzi;Confucius;Mozi;Mencius;Zhuangzi;Han Fei
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2017-05-17 15:44:59 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 關於中國對征伐侵略戰爭的證成法,要從湯武革命開始說起。湯武進攻桀紂的理由,是弔民伐罪和代行天帝旨意二點。以天帝為證成理由的做法,在周穆王《尚書‧呂刑》提昇到最高的高度,墨子也主張偉大戰爭中天帝和天神曾施展了法力。老子認為上天助佑慈愛悲憫的有道者奮勇擊敗驕盈溢滿的統治者,以拯救受剝削的平民。孔子以被侵略者的民意做為興戰與否的依據,又以保衛中原文化、侵略異文化民族做為上天不可測知的意願。孫武以侵略戰追求利益,不但不能證成侵略戰,反而使侵略變成不道德的。孟子和莊子都認為敵國人民是否歡迎侵略者是侵略戰爭是否應打的唯一判準。韓非認為利他的侵略戰其實有利己的動機,這反過來說,便是利己的興戰理由必須也能利他,方是道德的。
    Justifications of aggressive warfare in China started with the military overthrows of Jie and Zhou by Tang and Zhou Wuwang, who proclaim to act on God’s behalf: to punish the evil emperors for their crimes and to relieve the ruled of their sufferings. The justification based on God is much expanded by Zhou Muwang and taken up by Mozi. Laozi states that Heaven will bless the compassionate sages to attack with courage on arrogant and overtopping princes in order to rescue the deprived common people. Confucius bases the decision to attack a foreign power on the popular mood of the foreign people. He attributes the safeguarding of the Chinese culture against alien cultures to the unfathomable will of Heaven. Sunzi conceives aggression as a means to benefit. He has no intention to justify aggression on any moral or religious ground. Mencius and Zhuangzi both think that one can wage an aggressive war only when it is welcomed by the foreign
    people to be attacked. Han Fei combines the beneficial-punitive justification and the selfish motivation. In this way he moralizes the selfish motivation of Sunzi by inventing the beneficialpunitive nature for the aggressive war.
    Relation: MOST 104-2410-H-004-097
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[Department of Philosophy ] NSC Projects

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