本研究欲探討自律學習與數學學業成就之縱貫性關係，以及其中是否有性別差異存在。本研究進行橫跨兩年期共計五波次，以國小四年級下學期追蹤至國小六年級下學期的長期縱貫性追蹤調查，進行潛在成長曲線模型分析。研究發現：性別對於自律學習與數學學業成就之起始水準的影響達顯著，其中，女生的自律學習起始水準高於男生，男生的數學學業成就起始水準則高於女生；自律學習起始水準與自律學習成長速率呈現負向影響，且自律學習起始水準對數學學業成就起始水準則達顯著正向影響，但數學學業成就起始水準對數學學業成就成長速率則無顯著影響。最後，根據本研究結果提出相關結論與建議，以供未來研究與實務輔導工作的參考。Students’ self-regulated learning (SRL) is an important topic. This study examines the development of self-regulated learning and math achievement. The sample from the 4th- to 6th-grade elementary schools students. Structural equation modeling with the latent growth curve models is employed to analyze the data. The analysis results are as follows: The gender differences really exist regarding the development of SRL. Between self-regulated’ slope and math achievement’s slope and between self-regulated’ intercept and math achievement’s intercept both have positive relationships. In all students sample and girl’s sample, they have a negative relationship between self-regulated’ slope and intercept. The growth of self-regulated learning is curve, not linear, so could not accurately predict the trend of self-regulated learning in future. Girls’ self-regulated learning are better than boys’, but boys’ growth rate are better than girls’. Boys’ math achievements are better than girls’, and the growth rate is too. Bnd math achievements’ mean just has a little difference. But girls’ performances on self-regulated learning and math achievements are better than those of boys in the 4th wave test. Based on these results, several conclusions and suggestions for parctical applications and future research are proposed.