Modern leadership–development and practicality in chinese companies
|上傳時間: ||2017-07-03 14:39:50 (UTC+8)|
|摘要: ||The topic of leadership and leadership devolvement has attracted considerable interest from both academics and practitioners. Further, there have been explicit and implicit claims, that both leadership and culture are linked with each other and both influence organizational performance. While modern leadership and its evolving theories has been examined independently, its applicability was taken as universally. Few studies have investigated the association between the three concepts. This thesis focuses on the new styles of modern leadership and presents evidence suggesting that leadership is very dependent on its cultural context. It further shows that most leadership theories are based on western values, and therefore questions, whether these are applicable in Chinese companies. In fact, this paper is based on the assumption that the relationship between leadership style and performance is mediated by the organizational culture that is present at hand. It concludes with several implications for theory and practice and identifies future research objectives.|
|參考文獻: ||Adler, N. J. (1986). International dimensions of organizational behavior. Thunderbird |
International Business Review, 28(1), 31–32.
Alon, I., & Higgins, J. M. (2005). Global leadership success through emotional and cultural
intelligences. Business Horizons, 48(6), 501–512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2005.04.003
Ambler, T., Witzel, M., Xi, C., & Zou, D. (2008). Doing business in China. Routledge.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. Collier Macmillan.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1993). Transformational leadership and organizational culture.
The International Journal of Public Administration, 17(3–4), 541–554.
Bass, B. M., & Stogdill, R. M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: Theory,
Research, and Managerial Application. New York: Free Press.
Bennis, W. (1999). The leadership advantage. Leader to leader, 1999(12), 18-23.
Bird, C. (1940). Social psychology. New York: Appleton-Century.
Blunt, P., & Jones, M. L. (1997). Exploring the limits of Western leadership theory in East
Asia and Africa. Personnel Review, 26(1/2), 6–23. https://doi.org/10.1108/00483489710157760
Borgatta, E. F., Bales, R. F., & Couch, A. S. (1954). Some Findings Relevant to the Great Man
Theory of Leadership. American Sociological Review, 19(6), 755. https://doi.org/10.2307/2087923
Bucholtz, M., & Hall, K. (2005). Identity and interaction: a sociocultural linguistic approach.
Discourse Studies, 7(4–5), 585–614. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445605054407
Bycio, P., Hackett, R. D., & Allen, J. S. (1995). Further assessments of Bass’s (1985)
conceptualization of transactional and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80(4), 468.
Cheng, C. (1994). Diversity as Community and Communions: A Taoist Alternative to
Modernity. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 7(6), 49–58. https://doi.org/10.1108/09534819410072728
Day, D. V. (2001). Leadership development: A review in context. The Leadership
Quarterly, 11(4), 581-613.
Deal, T. E., & Kennedy, A. A. (1983). Culture: A new look through old lenses. The Journal of
Applied Behavioral Science, 19(4), 498–505.
Denison, D. R., Hooijberg, R., & Quinn, R. E. (1995). Paradox and Performance: Toward a
Theory of Behavioral Complexity in Managerial Leadership. Organization Science, 6(5), 524–540.
Drucker, P. F. (2009). Managing in a time of great change. Harvard Business Press.
Engardio, P. (1995). China: Move over, Karl Marx–Here comes Confucius. Business Week.
Fairhurst, G. T. (2008). Discursive Leadership: A Communication Alternative to Leadership
Psychology. Management Communication Quarterly, 21(4), 510–521. https://doi.org/10.1177/0893318907313714
Fernandez, D. R., Carlson, D. S., Stepina, L. P., & Nicholson, J. D. (1997). Hofstede’s country
classification 25 years later. The Journal of Social Psychology, 137(1), 43–54.
Fiedler, F. E. (1996). Research on leadership selection and training: One view of the
future. Administrative science quarterly, 241-250.
Fleishman, E. A. (1973). Twenty years of consideration and structure. In E. A. Fleishman & J.
G. Hunt (Eds.), Current developments in the study of leadership (pp. 1–40). Carbondale,
IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Furnham, A. (1984). Personality and values. Personality and Individual Differences, 5(4),
Galton, F. (1869). Hereditary genius: An inquiry into its laws and consequences (Vol. 27).
Geyer, N. (2008). Discourse and politeness: Ambivalent face in Japanese. A&C Black.
Goffman, E. (1955). On face-work: An analysis of ritual elements in social interaction (3rd
ed., Vol. 18). Psychiatry.
Hall, C., Sarangi, S., & Slembrouck, S. (1999). The legitimation of the client and the
profession: Identities and roles in social work discourse. Talk, work and institutional order: Discourse in medical, mediation and management settings.
Halpin, A. W., & Winer, B. J. (1957). A factorial study of the leader behavior
descriptions. Leader behavior: Its description and measurement, 39-51.
Heenan, D. A., & Bennis, W. (1999). Co-leaders: The power of great partnerships.
John Wiley & Sons.
Hennessey, J. T. (1998). “Reinventing” Government: Does Leadership Make the Difference?
Public Administration Review, 58(6), 522. https://doi.org/10.2307/977579
Ho, D. Y. (1976). On the concept of face. American Journal of Sociology, 81(4), 867–884.
Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, leadership, and organization: do American theories apply
abroad?Organizational Dynamics, 9(1), 42–63.
Hofstede, G. (1983). National cultures in four dimensions: A research-based theory of cultural
differences among nations. International Studies of Management & Organization,
Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. The Academy of
Management Executive, 7(1), 81–94.
Hofstede, G., & Bond, M. H. (1988). The Confucius connection: From cultural roots to
economic growth. Organizational Dynamics, 16(4), 5–21.
Isaacson, W. (2012). The Real Leadership Lessons of Steve Jobs. Harvard Business Review
Jenkins, R. (2000). Categorization: Identity, Social Process and Epistemology.
Current Sociology, 48(3), 7–25.
Lashinsky, A. (2015). Apple's Tim Cook leads different. Fortune.
Leithwood, K. A. (1992). The move toward transformational leadership.
Educational Leadership, 49(5), 8.
Levasseur, R. E. (2004). People Skills: Change Management Tools–The Modern Leadership
Model. Interfaces, 34(2), 147–148. https://doi.org/10.1287/inte.1030.0064
Liden, R. C. (2012). Leadership research in Asia: A brief assessment and suggestions for the
future. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 29(2), 205–212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10490-011-9276-2
Manimala M. J., Wasdani K. P., Poornima K. (2013). Distributed leadership at Google: Lessons from the billion-dollar brand. Ivey Business Journal
Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P. (1984). Manz, Sims 1984_Searching for the unleader,
organizational member views on leading selfmanaged groups.pdf. Human Relations, 37(5), 409–424.
McCall, M. W. (1998). High flyers (Vol. Developing the next generation of leaders). Boston.
Molero, F., Cuadrado, I., Navas, M., & Morales, F. (2007). Relations and Effects of
Transformational Leadership: A comparative Analysis with Traditional Leadership Styles. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 10(2), 358–368.
Nicholls, J. (1988). Leadership in organisations: Meta, macro and micro. European
Management Journal, 6(1), 16–25.
Oetzel, J., Ting-Toomey, S., Masumoto, T., Yokochi, Y., Pan, X., Takai, J., & Wilcox, R.
(2001). Face and facework in conflict: A cross-cultural comparison of China, Germany, Japan, and the United States. Communication Monographs, 68(3), 235–258.
Ogbonna, E., & Harris, L. C. (2000). Leadership style, organizational culture and
performance: empirical evidence from UK companies. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(4), 766–788. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190050075114
Pearce, C. L. (2007). The future of leadership development: The importance of identity, multi-
level approaches, self-leadership, physical fitness, shared leadership, networking, creativity, emotions, spirituality and on-boarding processes. Human Resource Management Review, 17(4), 355–359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2007.08.006
Ralston, D. A., Holt, D. H., Terpstra, R. H., & Kai-Cheng, Y. (1997). The impact of national
culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: A study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. Journal of International Business Studies, 177–207.
Rowley, C., & Ulrich, D. (2012a). Conclusion: lessons learned and insights derived from
leadership in Asia. Asia Pacific Business Review, 18(4), 675–681.
Rowley, C., & Ulrich, D. (2012b). Introduction: setting the scene for leadership in Asia. Asia
Pacific Business Review, 18(4), 451–463. https://doi.org/10.1080/13602381.2012.694726
Schein, E. H. (1996). Culture: The Missing Concept in Organization Studies. Administrative
Science Quarterly, 41(2), 229. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393715
Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership (Vol. 2) (Vol. 2).
John Wiley & Sons.
Schnake, M., Dumler, M. P., & Cochran, D. S. (1993). The Relationship Between
“Traditional” Leadership, “Super” Leadership, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Group & Organization Management, 18(3), 352–363.
Schnurr, S., & Chan, A. (2011). Exploring another side of co-leadership: Negotiating
professional identities through face-work in disagreements. Language in Society, 40(2), 187–209. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404511000030
Selmer, J. (2006). Language ability and adjustment: Western expatriates in China.
Thunderbird International Business Review, 48(3), 347–368. https://doi.org/10.1002/tie.20099
Slack, T., & Parent, M. M. (2006). Understanding sport organizations: The application of
organization theory. Human Kinetics.
Sutter, R. (2010). Assessing China’s Rise and US Leadership in Asia—growing maturity and
balance. Journal of Contemporary China, 19(65), 591–604. https://doi.org/10.1080/10670561003666186
Swierczek, F. W. (1991). Leadership and Culture: Comparing Asian Managers. Leadership &
Organization Development Journal, 12(7), 3–10. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000001165
Thomson, J. (2013). 21st Century leadership. Strategic Finance, 95(5), 23–24.
Ting-Toomey, S., & Kurogi, A. (1998). Facework competence in intercultural conflict: An
updated face-negotiation theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22(2), 187–225.
Tourish, D. (2007). Themed book reviews: Communication, discourse and leadership. Human
Relations, 60(11), 1727–1740.
Triandis, H. C. (1996). The psychological measurement of cultural syndromes. American
Psychologist, 51(4), 407.
Triandis, H. C., Bontempo, R., Betancourt, H., Bond, M., Leung, K., Brenes, A., Montmollin,
G. (1986). The measurement of the etic aspects of individualism and collectivism across cultures. Australian Journal of Psychology, 38(3), 257–267. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049538608259013
Vicere, A. A., & Fulmer, R. M. (1998). Leadership by design. Harvard Business Press.
Vine, B., Holmes, J., Marra, M., Pfeifer, D., & Jackson, B. (2008). Exploring Co-leadership
Talk Through Interactional Sociolinguistics. Leadership, 4(3), 339–360. https://doi.org/10.1177/1742715008092389
Yukl, G. (1971). Toward a behavioral theory of leadership. Organizational Behavior and
Human Performance, 6(4), 414–440.
Yukl, G. A. (2002). Leadership in organizations.
Yukl, G. (2008). How leaders influence organizational effectiveness. The Leadership
Quarterly, 19(6), 708–722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.09.008
Zaccaro, S. J. (2007). Trait-based perspectives of leadership. American Psychologist, 62(1),