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    Title: 新世代自由貿易協定下之菸草控制爭議:以TPP為例
    Authors: 楊培侃
    Contributors: 國際經營與貿易學系
    Keywords: 菸草控制;跨太平洋夥伴協定;菸草控制框架公約;一般例外條款;菸草除外;菸草素面包裝;菸草貿易;公共健康;自由貿易協定;美國TPP菸草提案;新世代自由貿易協定;Tobacco Control;Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement;Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC);General Exception Clause;Tobacco Carve-Out/Exclusion;Tobacco Plain Packaging;Tobacco Trade;Public Health;Free Trade Agreements (FTAs);U.S. TPP Tobacco Proposal;New Generation FTAs
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2017-07-14 09:17:02 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 隨著貿易自由化與雙邊或區域自由貿易協定的發展趨勢,菸草貿易儼然成為全球菸草盛行與菸害擴散的主要原因。因此,如何處理菸草貿易問題,長期以來即為雙邊或區域自由貿易政策的重要爭議問題。過去,菸品被視為像其他農產品受貿易規範之拘束,並適用關稅減讓。直到跨太平洋夥伴協定(TPPA)談判時,有關菸草控制與貿易的議題,透過美國與馬來西亞之提案,才正式搬上談判桌,由成員國熱烈討論。而TPPA乃12亞太國家正在談判中的新世代自由貿易協定。 本研究計畫旨在探討TPPA談判中由美國和馬來西亞所提出的兩種菸草控制的規範模式,分別為「例外模式」與「除外模式」。美國菸草提案分別於2012年5月及2013年8月提出兩份草案,第一次提案所採「菸草例外」之模式,經美國國內菸草業者反對並遊說後,美國政府業已撤回並修正,所提出的第二次提案改採「一般例外」之模式,而有利於菸商商業利益的規範模式。對此,馬來西亞在公共健康團體的支持下,提出「除外模式」之對案,期能將菸草完全排除於TPPA適用範圍之外,提供TPPA成員國有更大的自由度採取菸草控制措施。前開菸草提案極具爭議性,受到各界的關注,在TPPA成員國、民間團體及菸草產業間高度爭論中。本計畫亦嘗試尋求其他可行的替代方案,並初步認為採取折衷的模式,即「部分例外、部分除外」,未嘗不失為未來TPPA談判時,較易為各成員國接受的可行方案。 With the proliferation of free trade agreements, tobacco trade becomes the major cause for the spread of tobacco epidemics worldwide. How to deal with trade in tobacco products has long been a controversial issue in shaping the bilateral or regional trade policy. In the past, tobacco has been treated as the same as other agricultural products subjecting to trade rules or tariff concessions in trade agreements. It was not until the negotiation of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) that trade-related issues over tobacco control were, for the first time, officially put on table by the U.S. and debated different options among 12 Asia-Pacific countries. Two basic approaches were proposed by the U.S. and Malaysia to address regulatory problem of tobacco products in the TPP agreement. While the U.S. first proposed a pro-health approach to include a “tobacco-specific exception” provision in May 2012, it later, in August 2013, adopted a pro-business approach to use a “general exception” provision as usually provided in other trade agreements. In response, Malaysia, with the support from public health groups, proposed a “carve-out” approach providing TPP countries with greater latitude to adopt tobacco control measures. These proposals are highly debated among TPP countries, health advocates and tobacco industry. On the controversy over these tobacco proposals in the TPPA negotiation, this research project aims to examine different legal effects between “exception” and “exclusion” approaches taken by the U.S. and Malaysia, and identify the underlining policy arguments behind these two approaches. This project would also seek possible alternative options to see if there could be a middle ground for future TPPA tobacco agenda. This project preliminarily finds that a complete carve-out may be desirable for public health reasons but a mixed approach with partial exclusions would be a more feasible and practicable solution for tobacco agenda in TPPA.
    Relation: 科技部
    104-2410-H-004-068
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[國際經營與貿易學系 ] 國科會研究計畫

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