English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Items with full text/Total items : 87214/116105 (75%)
Visitors : 23268133      Online Users : 398
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    政大機構典藏 > 理學院 > 心理學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/111500
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/111500

    Title: 目標理解影響嬰兒的動作模仿
    Goal understanding influences infants' imitation of actions
    Authors: 王維屏
    Wang, Wei Ping
    Contributors: 黃啟泰
    Wang, Wei Ping
    Keywords: 模仿
    Verbal cue
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2017-07-31 11:11:59 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 目標解讀在許多不同的模仿理論中均受到重視,並被認為是模仿學習中的關鍵。其中,目標導向的模仿理論認為在模仿過程裡,觀察者會將動作要素以階層關係重組為主要目標和次要目標,在資源有限的情況下,次要目標在模仿中容易被忽略,只重現主要目標。本研究修訂過去研究嬰兒目標導向模仿之作業,探索示範中的動作方向及口語提示線索如何影響嬰兒的目標導向模仿。在實驗1中,嬰兒看到示範者以跳躍或滑行的動作方式將玩偶移動至桌面或盒子裡,結果發現嬰兒會在沒有盒子的情境中模仿不同的動作方式,並在有盒子的情境裡模仿示範者的位置選擇。實驗2修訂實驗1的程序,延後呈現運動方向提示目標的時間,結果發現移動路徑的改變會使嬰兒在有盒子情境裡模仿位置選擇的正確性下降。實驗3在示範開始前加入口語提示協助嬰兒區辨目標位置,並使用與實驗2相同的移動路徑,結果發現口語提示無法增加有盒子情境位置選擇的正確性,反而使無盒子情境中模仿動作方式的表現減少。嬰兒的模仿行為不能完全用目標導向模仿理論中目標的階層排序解釋,示範情境、溝通互動以及語言等不同線索皆可能影響嬰兒推理目標的方式,改變模仿的傾向。
    The goal-directed theory of imitation claims that infants imitate an action by decomposing it into separate and hierarchically organized goals. When resources are limited, infants ignore less important goals to reproduce main goals. The evidence of this theory is that infants prefer to imitate action outcomes over styles when an external goal was present. In contrast, infants take action styles as major goals when there was no observable outcome. In this research, we investigated how movement direction and verbal information influence the goal-directed imitation process. In Experiment 1, we replicated the goal-choice imitation task used in previous research. 18-month-old infants observed an adult moving a toy animal in different action styles (slide or hop) into one of the two boxes (box condition) or onto the table (no-box condition).The results showed that infants imitated the action styles in no-box condition and matched the location choice in box condition. In Experiment 2, we modify the task by delaying the timing of movement direction cue for goal choice. Infants imitated the box choices less accurately after observing the modified demonstration. In Experiment 3, we verbalized the actor’s goal to investigate whether the goal choice errors in Experiment 2 are due to the lack of goal salience. We found no increase for the accuracy of matching location in the box condition but a decrease for the imitation of action styles in the no-box condition. In addition to the tendency to imitate different goals in different conditions, the study suggests important roles of movement direction and verbal cues in infants’ goal-directed imitation.
    Reference: Bauer, P. J., & Hertsgaard, L. A. (1993). Increasing Steps in Recall of Events: Factors Facilitating Immediate and Long‐Term Memory in 13.5‐and 16.5‐Month‐Old Children. Child development, 64(4), 1204-1223.
    Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2005). One‐year‐olds comprehend the communicative intentions behind gestures in a hiding game. Developmental Science, 8(6), 492-499.
    Bekkering, H., Brass, M., Woschina, S., & Jacobs, A. M. (2005). Goal-directed imitation in patients with ideomotor apraxia. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22(3-4), 419-432.
    Bekkering, H., Wohlschlager, A., & Gattis, M. (2000). Imitation of gestures in children is goal-directed. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A, 53(1), 153-164.
    Bird, G., Brindley, R., Leighton, J., & Heyes, C. (2007). General processes, rather than" goals," explain imitation errors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 33(5), 1158-1169.
    Butler, L. P., & Markman, E. M. (2012). Preschoolers use intentional and pedagogical cues to guide inductive inferences and exploration. Child development, 83(4), 1416-1428.
    Cannon, E. N., & Woodward, A. L. (2012). Infants generate goal‐based action predictions. Developmental Science, 15(2), 292-298.
    Carpenter, M., Akhtar, N., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Fourteen-through 18-month-old infants differentially imitate intentional and accidental actions. Infant Behavior and Development, 21(2), 315-330.
    Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2005). Twelve‐and 18‐month‐olds copy actions in terms of goals. Developmental Science, 8(1), F13-F20.
    Chen, M. L., & Waxman, S. R. (2013). “Shall we blick?”: Novel words highlight actors' underlying intentions for 14-month-old infants. Developmental psychology, 49(3), 426-431.
    Csibra, G., & Gergely, G. (2006). Social learning and social cognition: The case for pedagogy. Processes of change in brain and cognitive development. Attention and performance XXI, 21, 249-274.
    Cusack, J. P., Williams, J. H., & Neri, P. (2015). Action perception is intact in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(5), 1849-1857.
    Daum, M. M., Prinz, W., & Aschersleben, G. (2008). Encoding the goal of an object‐directed but uncompleted reaching action in 6‐and 9‐month‐old infants. Developmental Science, 11(4), 607-619.
    De Villiers, J. G., & De Villiers, P. A. (2000). Linguistic determinism and the understanding of false. Children’s reasoning and the mind, 191-228.
    Elsner, B., & Pfeifer, C. (2012). Movement or goal: Goal salience and verbal cues affect preschoolers’ imitation of action components. Journal of experimental child psychology, 112(3), 283-295.
    Falck-Ytter, T., Gredebäck, G., & von Hofsten, C. (2006). Infants predict other people's action goals. Nature neuroscience, 9(7), 878-879.
    Figueras-Costa, B., & Harris, P. (2001). Theory of mind development in deaf children: A nonverbal test of false-belief understanding. Journal of deaf studies and deaf education, 6(2), 92-102.
    Fukuyama, H., & Myowa-Yamakoshi, M. (2013). Fourteen-month-old infants copy an action style accompanied by social-emotional cues. Infant Behavior and Development, 36(4), 609-617.
    Gattis, M., Bekkering, H., & Wohlschläger, A. (2002). Goal-directed imitation. In A. N. M. W. Prinz (Ed.), The imitative mind: development, evolution and brain bases (pp. 183–205). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Gergely, G., & Csibra, G. (2003). Teleological reasoning in infancy: The naıve theory of rational action. Trends in cognitive sciences, 7(7), 287-292.
    Gergely, G., & Csibra, G. (2005). The social construction of the cultural mind: Imitative learning as a mechanism of human pedagogy. Interaction Studies, 6(3), 463-481.
    Gergely, G., Bekkering, H., & Király, I. (2002). Developmental psychology: Rational imitation in preverbal infants. Nature, 415(6873), 755-755.
    Gleissner, B., Bekkering, H., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2000). Children’s coding of human action: cognitive factors influencing imitaation in 3‐year‐old. Developmental Science, 3(4), 405-414.
    Goldenberg, G. (1999). Matching and imitation of hand and finger posturesin patients with damage in the left or right hemispheres. Neuropsychologia, 37(5), 559-566.
    Goldenberg, G., & Hagmann, S. (1997). The meaning of meaningless gestures: A study of visuo-imitative apraxia. Neuropsychologia, 35(3), 333-341.
    Gredebäck, G., Stasiewicz, D., Falck-Ytter, T., Rosander, K., & von Hofsten, C. (2009). Action type and goal type modulate goal-directed gaze shifts in 14-month-old infants. Developmental psychology, 45(4), 1190-1194.
    Hamilton, A. F. d. C. (2008). Emulation and mimicry for social interaction: a theoretical approach to imitation in autism. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61(1), 101-115.
    Hamilton, A. F. d. C., Brindley, R. M., & Frith, U. (2007). Imitation and action understanding in autistic spectrum disorders: how valid is the hypothesis of a deficit in the mirror neuron system? Neuropsychologia, 45(8), 1859-1868.
    Hamlin, J. K., Hallinan, E. V., & Woodward, A. L. (2008). Do as I do: 7‐month‐old infants selectively reproduce others’ goals. Developmental Science, 11(4), 487-494.
    Hauf, P., & Aschersleben, G. (2008). Action–effect anticipation in infant action control. Psychological Research, 72(2), 203-210.
    Hauf, P., Elsner, B., & Aschersleben, G. (2004). The role of action effects in infants’ action control. Psychological Research, 68(2-3), 115-125.
    Herbert, J., & Hayne, H. (2000). Memory retrieval by 18–30-month-olds: Age-related changes in representational flexibility. Developmental psychology, 36(4), 473.
    Hernik, M., & Southgate, V. (2012). Nine‐months‐old infants do not need to know what the agent prefers in order to reason about its goals: On the role of preference and persistence in infants’ goal‐attribution. Developmental science, 15(5), 714-722.
    Heyes, C. (2001). Causes and consequences of imitation. Trends in cognitive sciences, 5(6), 253-261.
    Iacoboni, M., & Dapretto, M. (2006). The mirror neuron system and the consequences of its dysfunction. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7(12), 942-951.
    Kanakogi, Y., & Itakura, S. (2011). Developmental correspondence between action prediction and motor ability in early infancy. Nature communications, 2, 341.
    Legare, C. H., & Nielsen, M. (2015). Imitation and innovation: The dual engines of cultural learning. Trends in cognitive sciences, 19(11), 688-699.
    Legare, C. H., Wen, N. J., Herrmann, P. A., & Whitehouse, H. (2015). Imitative flexibility and the development of cultural learning. Cognition, 142, 351-361.
    Leighton, J., Bird, G., & Heyes, C. (2010). ‘Goals’ are not an integral component of imitation. Cognition, 114(3), 423-435.
    Liebal, K., Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Infants use shared experience to interpret pointing gestures. Developmental Science, 12(2), 264-271.
    Liepmann, D. (1900). Das Krankheitsbild der Apraxie („motorischen Asymbolie”) auf Grund eines Falles von einseitiger Apraxie pp. 30–44. European Neurology, 8(1), 30-44.
    Loucks, J., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2013). Goals influence memory and imitation for dynamic human action in 36‐month‐old children. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 54(1), 41-50.
    Marsh, L. E., & Hamilton, A. F. d. C. (2011). Dissociation of mirroring and mentalising systems in autism. Neuroimage, 56(3), 1511-1519.
    Marsh, L. E., Pearson, A., Ropar, D., & Hamilton, A. d. C. (2015). Predictive gaze during observation of irrational actions in adults with autism spectrum conditions. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 45(1), 245-261.
    Matarić, M. J., & Pomplun, M. (1998). Fixation behavior in observation and imitation of human movement. Cognitive Brain Research, 7(2), 191-202.
    Meltzoff, A. N. (1988a). The Human Infant as Homo Imitans. In J. T. Zentall & B.G. Galef (Ed.), Social Learning: Psychological and Biological Perspectives (pp. 319-341). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Meltzoff, A. N. (1988b). Infant imitation after a 1-week delay: Long-term memory for novel acts and multiple stimuli. Developmental psychology, 24(4), 470-476.
    Meltzoff, A. N., & Moore, M. K. (1977). Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. science, 198(4312), 75-78.
    Nielsen, M., & Blank, C. (2011). Imitation in young children: When who gets copied is more important than what gets copied. Developmental psychology, 47(4), 1050-1053.
    Nielsen, M., Simcock, G., & Jenkins, L. (2008). The effect of social engagement on 24‐month‐olds’ imitation from live and televised models. Developmental Science, 11(5), 722-731.
    Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2012). Putting the social into social learning: explaining both selectivity and fidelity in children's copying behavior. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 126(2), 182-192.
    Paulus, M., Hunnius, S., van Wijngaarden, C., Vrins, S., van Rooij, I., & Bekkering, H. (2011). The role of frequency information and teleological reasoning in infants' and adults' action prediction. Developmental psychology, 47(4), 976-983.
    Paulus, M., Hunnius, S., Vissers, M., & Bekkering, H. (2011). Imitation in infancy: Rational or motor resonance? Child development, 82(4), 1047-1057.
    Paulus, M., Schuwerk, T., Sodian, B., & Ganglmayer, K. (2017). Children’s and adults’ use of verbal information to visually anticipate others’ actions: A study on explicit and implicit social-cognitive processing. Cognition, 160, 145-152.
    Peterson, C. C., & Siegal, M. (2000). Insights into theory of mind from deafness and autism. Mind & Language, 15(1), 123-145.
    Ramachandran, V. S., & Oberman, L. M. (2006). Broken mirrors: a theory of autism. Scientific American, 295(5), 62-69.
    Rothi, L. J. G., Ochipa, C., & Heilman, K. M. (1991). A cognitive neuropsychological model of limb praxis. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 8(6), 443-458.
    Sommerville, J. A., Woodward, A. L., & Needham, A. (2005). Action experience alters 3-month-old infants' perception of others' actions. Cognition, 96(1), B1-B11.
    Southgate, V., Chevallier, C., & Csibra, G. (2009). Sensitivity to communicative relevance tells young children what to imitate. Developmental Science, 12(6), 1013-1019.
    Tomasello, M., & Carpenter, M. (2007). Shared intentionality. Developmental Science, 10(1), 121-125.
    Tomasello, M., & Haberl, K. (2003). Understanding attention: 12-and 18-month-olds know what is new for other persons. Developmental psychology, 39(5), 906-912.
    Tomasello, M., & Moll, H. (2010). The gap is social: Human shared intentionality and culture Mind the gap (pp. 331-349): Springer, Berlin.
    Tomasello, M., Kruger, A. C., & Ratner, H. H. (1993). Cultural learning. Behavioral and brain sciences, 16(03), 495-511.
    Vinter, A. (1986). The role of movement in eliciting early imitations. Child Development, 57(1), 66-71.
    von der Lühe, T., Manera, V., Barisic, I., Becchio, C., Vogeley, K., & Schilbach, L. (2016). Interpersonal predictive coding, not action perception, is impaired in autism. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 371(1693), 20150373.
    Wagner, L., Yocom, A. M., & Greene-Havas, M. (2008). Children’s understanding of directed motion events in an imitation choice task. Journal of experimental child psychology, 100(4), 264-275.
    Want, S. C., & Gattis, M. (2005). Are “late-signing” deaf children “mindblind”? Understanding goal directedness in imitation. Cognitive Development, 20(2), 159-172.
    Warneken, F., & Tomasello, M. (2007). Helping and cooperation at 14 months of age. Infancy, 11(3), 271-294.
    Williams, J. H., Whiten, A., Suddendorf, T., & Perrett, D. I. (2001). Imitation, mirror neurons and autism. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 25(4), 287-295.
    Wohlschläger, A., Gattis, M., & Bekkering, H. (2003). Action generation and action perception in imitation: an instance of the ideomotor principle. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 358(1431), 501-515.
    Woodward, A. L. (1998). Infants selectively encode the goal object of an actor's reach. Cognition, 69(1), 1-34.
    Woodward, A. L. (2003). Infants’ developing understanding of the link between looker and object. Developmental Science, 6(3), 297-311.
    Woolfe, T., Want, S. C., & Siegal, M. (2002). Signposts to development: Theory of mind in deaf children. Child development, 73(3), 768-778.
    Description: 碩士
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0103752009
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[心理學系] 學位論文

    Files in This Item:

    File SizeFormat
    200901.pdf925KbAdobe PDF0View/Open

    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

    社群 sharing

    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback