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    Title: 微額信貸在減少貧窮與鼓勵教育之顯著性
    Microfinance: the significance of microcredit in alleviating poverty and supporting education
    Authors: 貝君傑
    Benavides, Carlos
    Contributors: 林左裕
    Lin, Calvin
    貝君傑
    Benavides, Carlos
    Keywords: 微型金融
    NMP
    微型信貸
    微型貸款
    微型儲蓄
    微型保
    Microfinance
    NMP
    Microcredit
    Microloans
    Microsavings
    Microinsurance
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2017-07-31 11:36:07 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究運用線性迴歸模型來預測微型金融對於貧窮、高中就讀率等等社會問題所帶來的效果,其中微型金融包括了微型信貸、微型儲蓄、微型保險以及微型金融機構所提供的匯款服務。本研究的樣本涵蓋了從2011年到2014年拉丁美洲及加勒比地區的20個國家。
    在把樣本細分成可以比較的不同組別,並進行迴歸分析之後,我們發現微型金融對於貧窮人數有負向的顯著影響,對於高中就讀率有正向的顯著影響,而對於其他如醫療、創業、家庭支出與人均收入的影響並不顯著。
    因應在拉丁美洲和加勒比地區不斷增加的微型金融機構,本研究建議未來可以利用更複雜的統計模型像是工具變量、隨機對照實驗、準實驗問卷來估計微型金融與影響之間是否有因果關係,對於NMP來說,他們應該鼓勵微型金融的發展以及接受適度的批判來確保透明且可靠的研究來作為政策制定的參考。
    The following research uses a panel linear model regression to detect possible effects Microfinance and its iterations (namely microcredit, microsavings, microinsurance, and remittance services offered by microfinancial institutions) have on distinct social outcomes such as poverty and secondary school enrollment rates. The study sample consists of 20 countries in the Latin American and Caribbean region observed during a period of 4 years (2011-2014).
    After subdividing the sample into comparable groups the results yielded statistically significant negative effects on poverty headcount, and statistically significant positive effects on secondary school enrollment rates across the subgroups. The results from other social welfare dimensions such as health, business creation, household consumption, and income per capita were insignificant. Due to the increasing presence of Microfinancial institutions in Latin America and the Caribbean, there is sufficient reason to encourage further research to be done in which more experienced researchers can use more statistically complex models (such as IV, RCTs, quasi-experimental surveys) to try to determine whether or not there is a causal relationship between microfinance and the effects herein described. For policymakers and funders of NMPs, the takeaway is that they should encourage both advocates and critics to present transparent and replicable studies to back their claims.
    Reference: Augsburg, H. H. (2012). Microfinance, Poverty and Education. Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    Banerjee, D. G. (2015). The miracle of microfinance? Evidence from a randomized evaluation. American Economic Journal, pp. 22-53.
    Brooks, C. (2013, April 4). What is Microfinance? Retrieved from Business News Daily: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/4286-microfinance.html
    Chemin. (2008). The benefits and costs of microfinance evidence from Bangladesh. Journal of Development Studies, Vol 44, No. 4, pp. 463-484.
    Coudouel, H. W. (n.d.). Poverty Measurement and Analysis. World Bank Group.
    Duvendack, J. (2012, April 27). High Noon for Microfinance Impact Evaluations: Reinvestigating the Evidence from Bangladesh. The Journal of Development Studies, pp. 1864-1880.
    Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. (2017). CEPALSTAT | Databases and Statistical Publications. Retrieved from ECLAC - Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean: http://estadisticas.cepal.org/cepalstat/WEB_CEPALSTAT/Portada.asp?idioma=i
    Grameen Bank. (2015, December). Introduction to Grameen Bank. Retrieved from Grameen Bank: http://www.grameen.com/introduction/
    Imai, A. A. (2010). Microfinance and Household Poverty Reduction: New Evidence. World Development Vol. 38, No. 12, pp. 1760-1774.
    Imai, G. T. (2012). Microfinance and Poverty—A Macro Perspective. World Development, Vol. 40, No. 8, pp. 1675-1689.
    Investopedia. (2017, April). Microfinance. Retrieved from Investopedia: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/microfinance.asp
    Khandker. (2005). Microfinance and Poverty: Evidence using panel data from Bangladesh. The World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 263-286.
    Lambert, B. (2013). Retrieved from Ben Lambert Private Tutor: http://oxbridge-tutor.co.uk/
    Microinsurance Network. (2017, April 20). Key Concepts. Retrieved from Micro Insurance Network: http://www.microinsurancenetwork.org/microinsurance/key-concepts
    Multilateral Investment Fund. (2014). Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean set a new record hgh in 2014.
    Nghiem, C. R. (2012, April 18). Assessing the Welfare Effects of Microfinance in Vietnam: Empirical results from an quasi-experimental survey. The Journal of Development Studies, pp. 619-632.
    Pitt, K. (1998). The impact of group-based credit programs on poor households in Bangladesh: does the gender of participants matter? Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 106, No. 5, pp. 958-996.
    Reyna, O. T. (2007). Panel Data Analysis - Fixed and Random Effects using Stata. Princeton University.
    Reyna, O. T. (2010). Getting Started in Fixed/Random Effects Model using R. Princeton University.
    Roodman, M. (2009, June). The impact of microcredit on the poor in Bangladesh: revisiting the evidence. Center for Global Development, Working paper No. 174.
    Socio-economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean. (2017). Statistics. Retrieved from SEDLAC - Socio-economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean: http://sedlac.econo.unlp.edu.ar/eng/statistics.php
    World Bank Group. (2017). World Bank Open Data. Retrieved from World Bank: http://data.worldbank.org/
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    應用經濟與社會發展英語碩士學位學程(IMES)
    104266014
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0104266014
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[應用經濟與社會發展英語碩士學位學程 (IMES) ] 學位論文

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