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    Title: 基於資訊圖表設計之數位教材的學習成效評估與眼動歷程分析
    Assessing learning performance and eye tracking process for Infographic-based digital learning material
    Authors: 顏琳
    Yen, Lin
    Contributors: 陳志銘
    Chen, Chin Ming
    顏琳
    Yen, Lin
    Keywords: 多媒體教材
    資訊圖表教材
    眼動分析
    閱讀時間
    閱讀效率
    認知負荷
    Multimedia courseware
    Inforgraphic-based learning materials
    Eye movement analysis
    Reading time
    Reading efficiency
    Cognitive load
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2017-08-28 11:36:50 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 目前大部分教材仍以純文字方式呈現為主,少有教材以資訊圖表方式呈現;然而,近年來資訊以視覺化的方式呈現越來越受到重視,資訊圖表以具故事性且有組織等引人入勝的方式呈現、解釋複雜的資料,用圖像說故事,讓重點更加容易吸收。因此,應用資訊圖表方式所設計之教材,是否能達成比傳統教材更有效的知識吸收與成效,是一個值得深入探討的研究議題。
    本研究透過資訊圖表的設計原則,將傳統教材製作成資訊圖表教材,採準實驗研究法探討兩組分別使用資訊圖表教材與傳統教材輔助學習的學習者,在閱讀時間、閱讀效率、認知負荷,以及眼動歷程上是否具有顯著的差異。同時進一步探討不同性別與認知風格學習者,在使用資訊圖表所設計教材與使用傳統教材輔助學習,在閱讀時間、閱讀效率、認知負荷,以及眼動歷程上是否具有顯著的差異。本研究以國小兩班合計47個五年級學童為研究對象,隨機挑選一班學生為採用資訊圖表教材的實驗組,以及另一班為採用傳統教材的控制組進行閱讀實驗,兩組的閱讀教材內容相同,但閱讀時間則以學習者完全讀完教材之時間為量測基礎,並於完成兩種教材學習後進行後測。此外,為了深入了解學習者對於兩種不同教材呈現方式的想法與感受,本研究亦輔以訪談法進行質化資料之蒐集,針對學習者對於這兩種教材呈現方式的外觀、排版、內容及吸收難易等進行訪談,以輔助解釋量化分析結果,使研究結果更具客觀性。
    研究結果發現,控制組學習者採用傳統教材所需花費的教材閱讀時間,顯著高於採用資訊圖表所設計教材之實驗組學習者,並且多了近一倍的時間,也就是採用資訊圖表設計之教材輔助學習,有助於降低閱讀時間。此外,採用資訊圖表教材實驗組學習者的閱讀效率,亦顯著優於採用傳統教材的控制組學習者,顯示資訊圖表教材較傳統教材更容易吸收、理解教材內容,因此有更高的閱讀效率。而採用資訊圖表教材實驗組學習者的認知負荷,與採用傳統教材的控制組學習者的認知負荷不具有顯著差異。
    另外,眼動指標分析結果發現,部分傳統教材AOI區塊凝視時間、凝視次數及回視次數顯著高於資訊圖表教材。同時,訪談結果也指出資訊圖表設計之教材整體的視覺動線閱讀順暢,大部分內容都看得懂,圖文搭配較容易理解,同時也會提升學習興趣。最後,本研究亦針對資訊圖表應用於教學輔助學習教材,提出設計及教學實施上的建議,對於教材的創新設計具有貢獻。
    Most of learning materials are currently presented with pure texts, but rarely presented with inforgraphics. Nevertheless, the visualization of information is getting emphasized in past years. Inforgraphics attracts people with stories and organization in order to explains complicated data. Telling stories with images allows the points being more easily absorbed. In this case, it is worthy of in-depth discussion whether applying inforgraphic learning materials could achieve more effective knowledge absorption and achievement than traditional learning materials.
    With inforgraphic-based design principles, traditional learning materials are made into inforgraphic-based learning materials in this study. Quasi-experimental research is utilized for discussing the difference in reading time, reading efficiency, cognitive load, and eye tracking process between learners with inforgraphic-based learning materials and traditional material assisted learning. Meanwhile, the difference in reading time, reading efficiency, cognitive load, and eye tracking process between learners, with different gender and cognitive styles, with inforgraphic-based learning materials and traditional material assisted learning. This study involves two fifth-grade classes with a total of 47 students. A class is randomly selected as the experimental group with inforgraphic-based learning materials, and the other class as the control group with traditional learning materials for the reading experiment. The reading materials for both groups are identical, but the reading time is based on learners completely finishing the learning materials. Posttest is preceded after completing the learning with such two learning materials. Moreover, in order to deeply understand learners’ opinions and perception of such two learning materials, interviews are also preceded in this study for collecting qualitative data. The learners are interviewed about the appearance, layout, contents, and absorption difficulty of the learning materials to explain the quantitative analysis results so as to make the research results more objective.
    The research findings show that learners in the control group with traditional learning materials spend about one time more reading time than those in the experimental group with inforgraphic-based learning materials. That is, assisting learning with inforgraphic-based learning materials could reduce reading time. Furthermore, learners in the experimental group with inforgraphic-based learning materials outperform those in the control group with traditional learning materials on reading efficiency, showing that inforgraphic-based learning materials are more easily absorbed and comprehended the contents than traditional learning materials to present higher reading efficiency. Learners in the experimental group with inforgraphic-based learning materials do not appear significant differences from those in the control group with traditional learning materials on cognitive load.
    What is more, the eye tracking analysis results reveal that the AOI block fixation time, fixation times, and regression times of some traditional learning materials are notably higher than those of inforgraphic-based learning materials. Meanwhile, the interviews also point out the smooth visual circulation reading of inforgraphic-based learning materials. Most contents are understandable, the match with images and texts can be more easily comprehended, and the learning interests could also be enhanced. Finally, suggestions for design and teaching practice, aiming at the application of inforgraphics to auxiliary learning materials, are proposed in this study, presenting contribution to the innovative design of learning materials.
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    圖書資訊與檔案學研究所
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