English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  全文筆數/總筆數 : 71578/104447 (69%)
造訪人次 : 19171237      線上人數 : 604
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
搜尋範圍 查詢小技巧:
  • 您可在西文檢索詞彙前後加上"雙引號",以獲取較精準的檢索結果
  • 若欲以作者姓名搜尋,建議至進階搜尋限定作者欄位,可獲得較完整資料
  • 進階搜尋
    請使用永久網址來引用或連結此文件: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/112841


    題名: 台灣麥當勞加盟策略之校準分析
    A Calibration Analysis of McDonald’s Franchising in Taiwan
    作者: 樊蘊婕
    Fan, Yun Chieh
    貢獻者: 王信實
    Wang, Shinn Shyr
    樊蘊婕
    Fan, Yun Chieh
    關鍵詞: 速食產業
    委託代理理論
    校準分析
    加盟
    Fast-food industry
    Principal-agent model
    Calibration
    Franchising
    日期: 2017
    上傳時間: 2017-09-13 16:05:17 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 速食食品不但在我們的生活中扮演重要的角色,在台灣,其亦是最重要的餐飲產業之一。文獻上有關於加盟總部與加盟商之間的決策背後的模型,各個因子如何影響彼此,最後加盟總部與加盟商皆能極大化他們的效用,達到一個最適加盟的平衡點。然而,未看到有使用校準分析(Calibration)的方式回推出無法觀察到變數之合理區間的文獻。本研究使用此方法及台灣麥當勞的資料來解開加盟與否決策背後模型的面紗。在最基本的經濟模型中,我們發現加盟商努力的重要性增加時會導致加盟率的下降。再者,都會區的加盟商風險趨避程度以及市場風險較非都會區高。為了針對麥當勞總部的市場策略,延續上個模型的設定,我們在生產函數中另外加入健康食品的產品線以建設出較細緻的第二種模型。此延伸模型相較於第一個模型能解釋更多資料。我們亦觀察到當健康食品佔麥當勞產能提高時,模型的適配度會下降。此現象可解釋為在其他條件不變下,當麥當勞在菜單內加入更多比重的健康食品時,加盟商與加盟主的獲利將低於現階段的水準。

    關鍵字: 速食產業,委託代理理論,校準分析,加盟
    Fast food restaurants play an important role in our daily life; they are also one of the most important restaurant business types in Taiwan. The literature posits and examines models behind how franchisors and franchisees reach their franchising decisions, and how different factors affect optimal franchising rates. On that basis, they derive the optimal franchising rates, at which both franchisors and franchisees can maximize their utility. However, there is no literature on determining the reasonable range of variables in the model that we cannot observe in the real world. This study takes the initiative to unveil the model behind the franchising decision with proxies of variables by calibrating a basic economic model using data from McDonald’s Taiwan. Our finding are that a higher importance level of effort results in a higher optimal franchising rate, and the level of franchisees’ risk aversion and the market risk in metropolitan areas are higher than in non-metropolitan areas. In accordance with McDonald’s Taiwan’s strategy in the past years, we construct a more detailed model to capture the characteristics more accurately by adding a healthy food product line into the production function. The extended model can explain the real-world data better than the previous model. On the strategy side, we find that if healthy products account for a higher proportion of the production capacity, the model fitness level drops. In other words, the profit for both the franchisor and franchisees decreases when McDonald’s Taiwan introduces more healthy food to the menu.

    Key Words: fast-food industry, principal-agent model, calibration, franchising
    參考文獻: Blanck, H. M., Yaroch, A. L., Atienza, A. A., Yi, S. L., Zhang, J. and Mâsse, C. L., 2009. ‘Factors influencing lunchtime food choices among working Americans,’ Health Education & Behavior, 36(2), 289-301.
    Brickley, J. A., 1987. ‘The choice of organizational form: The case of franchising,’ Journal of Financial Economics, 18(2), 401-420.
    Carney, M. and Gedajlovic, E., 1991. ‘Vertical integration in franchise systems: Agency theory and resource explanations,’ Strategic Management Journal, 12(8), 607-629.
    Cramer, J.S., Hartog, J., Jonker, N. and Van Praag C. M., 2002. ‘Low risk aversion encourages the choice for entrepreneurship: an empirical test of a truism,’ Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 48(1), 29-36.
    Fladmoe-Lindquist, K. and Jacque, L. L., 1995. ‘Control modes in international service operations: The propensity to franchise’ Management Science, 41(7), 1238-1249.
    Hansen, L. P. and Heckman, J. J., 1996. ‘The empirical foundations of calibration,’ The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 10(1), 87-104.
    Holmstrom, B. and Milgrom, P., 1991. ‘Multitask principal-agent analyses: Incentive contracts, asset ownership, and job design,’ [Special issue]. Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization, 7, 24-52.
    Hsu, T. Y., 2012. ‘A study of the relationship among attitudes toward healthy diet, food involvement, and healthy diet behavior,’ Master’s thesis, Retrieved from http://ir.nkuht.edu.tw/handle/987654321/990.
    Huang, C. H. and Sung, W. C., 2008. ‘Relationship between consumer behavior and the demands of health-preservation restaurants,’ Journal of Leader University, 5(2), 6-16.
    Hunt, S. D., 1973. ‘The trend toward company-operated units in franchise chains,’ Journal of Retailing, 49, 3-12.
    Lafontaine, F., 1992. ‘Agency theory and franchising: Some empirical results,’ The RAND Journal of Economics, 23(2), 131-150.
    Lafontaine, F. and Shaw, K. L., 2005. ‘Targeting managerial control: Evidence from franchising,’ The RAND Journal of Economics, 36(1), 131-150.
    Lafontaine, F. and Slade, M. E., 1996. ‘Retail contracting and costly monitoring: Theory and evidence,’ European Economic Review, 40, 923-932.
    Lafontaine, F. and Slade, M. E., 2002. ‘Incentive contracting and the franchise decision.’ In Game Theory and Business Applications, Boston: Kluwer.
    Lan, G. F., 2016. ‘McDonald's gave up healthy-concept image, results in high quarterly earnings.’ Finance Technews, Retrieved from https://finance.technews.tw (in Chinese).
    Lu, T. C., 2009. ‘Effects of country of origin image and exotic food image on purchase intention,’ Master Thesis. Kaohsiung College, The Graduate School of Hospitality Management (in Chinese).
    Michael, S. C., 1996. ‘To franchise or not to franchise: An analysis of decision rights and organizational form shares,’ Journal of Business Venturing, 11(1), 57-71.
    Minkler, A. P., 1990. ‘An empirical analysis of a firm's decision to franchise’ Economics Letters, 34(1), 77-82.
    Norton, S. W., 1988. ‘An empirical look at franchising as an organizational form,’ The Journal of Business, 61(2), 197-218.
    Oreskes, N., Shrader-Frechette, K. and Belitz, K., 1994. ‘Verification, validation, and confirmation of numerical models in the earth sciences,’ Science, 263, 641-646.
    Paeratakul, S., Ferdinand, D. P., Champagne, C. M., Ryan, D. H. and Bray, G. A., 2003. ‘Fast-food consumption among US adults and children: Dietary and nutrient intake profile,’ Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(10), 1332-1338.
    Pingali, P., 2006. ‘Westernization of Asian diets and the transformation of food systems: Implications for research and policy,’ Food Policy, 32(3), 281-298.
    Pratt, J. W., 1964. ‘Risk aversion in the small and in the large,’ Econometrica, 32, 122-136.
    Prescott, J., Young, O., O'Neill, L., Yau, N. J. N. and Stevens, R., 2002. ‘Motives for food choice: a comparison of consumers from Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia and New Zealand’ Food Quality and Preference, 13, 489-495.
    Scott, F. A., Jr., 1995. ‘Franchising vs. company ownership as a decision variable of the firm,’ Review of Industrial Organization, 10(1), 69-81.
    Shane, S., 1998. ‘Explaining the distribution of franchised and company-owned outlets in franchise systems,’ Journal of Management, 24(6), 717-739.
    Strom, S., 2013. ‘With tastes growing healthier, McDonald's aims to adapt its menu,’ The New York Times, Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/.
    Thomadsen, R., 2007. ‘Product positioning and competition: The role of location in the fast food industry,’ Marketing Science, 26(6), 792-804.
    Wang, S. S., Lee, W. C., Ning, F. S. and Shao, C. T., 2016. ‘The competition and franchise decision in fast-food industry: Empirical results in Taiwan,’ Journal of Taiwan Land Research, 19(1), 39-68.
    Wang, Tianxi, 2014. ‘Competition and Increasing Returns to Scale: A Model of Bank Size’ The Economic Journal, Early View.
    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    應用經濟與社會發展英語碩士學位學程(IMES)
    103266002
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0103266002
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[應用經濟與社會發展英語碩士學位學程 (IMES) ] 學位論文

    文件中的檔案:

    檔案 大小格式瀏覽次數
    600201.pdf1116KbAdobe PDF0檢視/開啟


    在政大典藏中所有的資料項目都受到原著作權保護.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - 回饋