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    題名: 把中產階級找回:論智利後威權時期的教育改革
    Bringing the middle class back in : the educational reform in post-authoritarian chile
    作者: 邱鎮潼
    Yau, Chun Tung
    貢獻者: 鄭力軒
    Cheng, Li Hsuan
    邱鎮潼
    Yau, Chun Tung
    關鍵詞: 歷史制度論
    社會運動
    拉丁美洲民主化
    中產階 級
    教育改革
    historical institutionism
    social movement
    Latin American democratization
    middle class
    educational reform
    日期: 2017
    上傳時間: 2017-11-01 14:27:54 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本文旨在探討智利教育改革。智利於皮諾切特威權統治時期落實的市場導向教育制度,並沒有隨著他把權力交還給民主政府而瓦解,而是一直等到了二〇一六年,教育改革才出現。本文將回答以下問題:到底是什麼樣的原因促使了教育方面的改革?背後直接促使改革出現的原因以及箇中機制又是什麼?自政權移交以來,智利中左聯盟連續執政長達二十年,為什麼改革的出現並非是在政權過渡到民主政府的初期,而是到了政權移交後的二十多年以後才出現?
    本文站在歷史制度論的立場,並透過Skocpol(1995)的政體中心理論與Korpi(1985)的權力資源理論,並以過程追蹤法來回答上述問題。本文認為,在中產崛起期,貧窮議題仍較教育議題受到更多重視,教育題議欠缺改革契機。而在智利政府努力改善貧窮問題的情況下,整體社會經濟環境出現轉變,導致中產階級上升。由於中產階級對教育議題十分重視,因此隨著人數的不斷上升,使得有關議題漸漸開始被受重視。社運份子也把握機會發起行動,表達對教育制度的不滿,因此在社會運動期爆發了數起關鍵的社會運動。這使得左派政黨受到壓力,在不回應教育改革訴求的情況下失去大量中產階級的選票,並因此在下一輪大選中失利,迎來後威權時期的首次政黨輪替。敗選之後的中左聯盟為求讓自己在選舉中更具競爭力而對教育議題的態度出現轉變,候選人承諾在下一次選舉中勝出就會推動教育改革,並把學生訴求納入自己的競選口號中。最後在二〇一四年如願以償地勝選,並在二〇一六年成功推動教育改革。
    This dissertation mainly explains the rise of the Chilean educational reform. Chile adopted a market-driven educational institution since the Pinochet Administration, up until the educational reform which took place in 2016. This dissertation is intended to answer the following questions: what are the dynamics of the educational reform? What is the changing process of the Chilean educational institution? If the center-left coalition (La Concertación) was in power for twenty years, since post-Pinochet era, then why did the reform not emerge at the beginning of the post-authoritarian period but a few twenty years later?

    This dissertation is intended to answer all of the mentioned questions from the point of view of historical institutionalism. The framework was based on the polity centered theory by Skocpol (1995) and the power resource approach by Korpi (1985), through process tracing research method. I argue that, during the first two democratic governments of the post-authoritarian period (1990-2000), on one hand, the poverty issue gained much more attention than education, so that the educational reform was still lacking opportunities. On the other hand, the middle class raised quickly due to public policies made by the government. The middle class cared about educational issues so that its rising shaped public opinion, which made educational issues more important. Related social organizations seized the opportunity during the following government administration (2000-2010). The protest that happened during that period had significant influence and the center-left government lost the following elections by not responding to their demands. After the failure, the social organizations kept protesting under the right wing government administration for a long time and meanwhile, the center-left coalition changed their attitude on educational issues by promising the social organizations that they will deliver the educational reform if they win the following presidential elections. Finally, as a result, the center-left coalition fulfilled the promise to carry out the educational reform in 2016, after they won the presidential elections in 2013.
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    Valderrama, A. (2014, May 15). “Chile: El movimiento estudiantil sigue mostrando su fuerza en las calles.” PTS. Retrieved August 30, 2017, from http://www.pts.org.ar/Chile-El-movimiento-estudiantil-sigue-mostrando-su-fuerza-en-las-calles
    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    社會學系
    104254021
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0104254021
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[社會學系] 學位論文

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