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    題名: 人民聲請釋憲制度的改革展望
    The Perspective of Citizen’s Recourse to Constitutional Review
    作者: 陳淳文
    Chen, Chwen-Wen
    關鍵詞: 人民聲請釋憲;法國2008年修憲;憲法委員會;歐洲人權法院;憲法訴願;事前審查;抽象審查;優先之合憲性問題;人權保障者
    The Citizen’s Recourse to the Constitutional Review;The French Constitutional Revision of 2008;The Constitutional Council;European Human Rights Court;The Constitutional Complaint;The Constitutional Review of Judgments;Abstract Review of Constitutionality of Statutes;A Priori Constitutional Review;Priority Question of Constitutionality;The protector of human rights
    日期: 2015-09
    上傳時間: 2017-11-07 10:45:35 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 法國過去堅持人民不能在憲法訴訟中扮演任何角色,強調事前且抽象之審查模式,是歐陸的特例。然而,法國在二○○八年修憲引進人民聲請釋憲機制,終結其特例情形。此制度改變是為了在歐洲人權法院與本國法院的競爭中,法國奪回在憲法與人權領域的主導權。在過於強調個人權利保護的憲法訴訟制度中,使憲法法院成為最主要的人權保障者,固然有助於人權的維護,但卻可能造成憲法法院因案件過多而癱瘓,且也會使憲法法院與其他法院間發生緊張甚至是衝突關係。有鑑於歐陸經驗,我國的改革方向應一方面縮短救濟期間,提前解決憲法問題,但同時也要強化大法官與其他法院間的分工與合作關係。憲法法院的首要任務仍應為憲法維護者,但其仍得與其他法院一起扮演權利保障者的角色。
    The mechanism of citizen’s access to constitutional courts is an important element of constitutional litigation. The establishment of this mechanism of constitutional review can be found in a majority of European constitutional courts. This new constitutional adjudication of 2008 in France changes its original model of constitutional review established in 1958. The French model consisted of a priori abstract review, with a monopoly on power to review the constitutionality of statutes by the Constitutional Council and the exclusion of citizens in the process of constitutional review. This revision allows France to join the mainstream of Western constitutionalism by permitting individuals to challenge statutes in force that infringes on their rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution. The French constitutional amendment that creates the right to raise questions of constitutionality directly involved its citizens in a process of constitutional review seems a response to the appeal of the EHRC. In fact, this reform would recapture French judicial sovereignty in competition with ERHC and reaffirm the place of the Constitution at the apex of the French legal order. Taking the constitutional court as a major protector of human rights could certainly enhance the degree of human rights protection. But the judicial control relating to a specific case could also lead to an untrusting and anxious condition in the relationship between courts and the high numbers of cases which can clog down a constitutional court. Based on the European experience, the direction of our reform should place emphasis on the division of competence and cooperation among courts and help to remedy violations earlier and closer to the individual.
    關聯: 政大法學評論, 142, 281-343
    資料類型: article
    DOI 連結: http://dx.doi.org/10.3966/102398202015090142005
    DOI: 10.3966/102398202015090142005
    顯示於類別:[法學評論 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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