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    題名: 為什麼要保護未成年人?兒少福利、法律與歷史的分析
    Why Do We Protect Children?: Children's Welfare and an Analysis of History and the Law in Postwar Taiwan
    作者: 劉晏齊
    Liu, Yen-Chi
    關鍵詞: 兒童及少年福利;未成年人;兒童的最佳利益;立法;法律史;社會史;童年的建構;童年社會學;福利主義;戰後臺灣
    Child and Juvenile Welfare;Minors;the Best Interests of the Child;Legal History;Social History;Construction of Childhood;Children;Youth;Legal Protection;Postwar Taiwan
    日期: 2016-12
    上傳時間: 2017-11-07 15:01:34 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 相較於一九九○年代以前有關兒少保護措施之闕如,臺灣自一九九○年代初期以後,隨著少年福利法、兒童福利法、兒童及少年性交易防制條例等法律的制訂,到一九九九年內政部兒童局的成立,以及二○○○年以後與兒童及少年保護有關的法律逐一公布施行迄今,這二十多年來以未成年人最佳利益為中心的法律體系見證了臺灣社會對兒童與少年的保護觀念的急遽轉變。本文旨在耙梳臺灣於如何的歷史與社會脈絡中,其保護未成年人的法律與政策,何以在一九九○年代以後大量出現。我認為從戰後到一九九○年代迄今,由於臺灣的義務教育之普及與延長,使得絕大多數的兒童與少年停留在學校的時間更為長久,因此童年經驗有朝向同一化的傾向,且未成年人與成年人之間的區別更為明顯。此外,由於臺灣家庭結構的巨大改變,家戶組成逐漸以父母與少數子女為成員者為多數,父母與子女之關係因此越加緊密。是以兒少的形象與戰後初期相較,已逐漸轉變為不成熟的、純真無辜的、依賴無助的、需要成年人加以保護。一九九○年代以後正是因為此等歷史與社會因素之交織,而出現了大量的兒少立法。然而,在此種以未成年人形象的單一化為基礎之立法,事實上是忽視了個體的生命經驗,這些非一般認知下的兒少們,在以兒少保護之名的立法與政策中,未必能獲得最佳的保障。
    Since the 1990s, Taiwan has witnessed a flood of child-centered legislation which includes the enactment of Juvenile Welfare Act, the amendment of Child Welfare Act, the establishment of Child Welfare Bureau, and an overhaul of the Protection of Children and Youths Welfare and Rights Act., All these child-centered laws demonstrate a changed attitude towards the protection of children over the past 20 years. This paper aims at contextualizing the socio-legal history of the child-centered legislation and policies in Taiwan since the 1990s. It is argued that owing to the extension of the universal education, generations of children have spent more time in school gradually ever since the post-war peacetime. As a result, the childhood experience of most people has become more unitary and homogenous. The separation of childhood and adulthood has also been reinforced. In addition, the family structure has changed and transformed into a smaller size because of a successful family planning from the 1960s to 1990s. The fact that there are fewer children in a family gives parents impetus to place greater material and emotional investments in the family's existing children. As a consequence, the family structure becomes more child-centered. Therefore, through the eyes of adults, children are dependent, innocent, vulnerable, immature, and need protection. The legal system then reflects these cultural shifts and produces a flood of child-centered laws and policies. Nonetheless, the child-centered jurisprudence based on a unitary image of children in fact could neglect the differential experiences of children and does harm to marginalized children.
    關聯: 政大法學評論, 147, 83-157
    資料類型: article
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3966/10239820201612147002
    顯示於類別:[法學評論 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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