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    Title: 人民團體選舉制度之研究-單記、全額連記、限制連記法之影響
    The Electoral Rules of People Associations in Taiwan: Single Vote, Block Vote and Limited Vote
    Authors: 江欣彥
    莊姿鈴
    王業立
    Chiang, Hsin-Yen
    Chuang, Tzu-Ling
    Wang, Yeh-Lih
    Keywords: 人民團體;選舉制度;單記投票法;全額連記法;限制連記法
    people associations;electoral rules;single vote;block vote;limited vote
    Date: 2006-05
    Issue Date: 2017-11-08 11:09:58 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 台灣民眾常接觸到的選舉場域有三種:一是各級行政首長選舉、一是各級民意代表選舉、一是各種人民團體選舉。而回顧學術界對於相關選舉的研究成果,卻皆著眼於針對行政首長與民意代表的選舉上,對於人民團體選舉的探討方面顯然是嚴重不足的。儘管人民團體選舉是非正式的公職人員選舉,但一來其與民眾的生活息息相關,二來人民團體往往是政黨選舉動員體系的一環,基此,筆者認為,倘若欲對國家公職選舉有更為全盤性的瞭解,則對於基層人民團體選舉的認知便是不可或缺的。本研究試著從選舉制度的角度出發,分析選舉制度差異對於人民團體選舉過程與組織架構面向存在著何種影響。
    各類人民團體的選舉制度主要分為單記投票法、全額連記法、限制連記法三種。立基在此三種選舉制度的架構下,本文探討各個人民團體所呈現出來其組織職務遴選過程,從選舉制度、選舉過程以及競爭模式三個面向析之,以檢視選舉制度差異與團體內部運作之問的相關性,並建構其比較模型。至於在樣本的選取方面,人民團體分為社會團體、政治團體、職業團體,本研究將焦點著重於後兩類團體,依立意抽樣法執行抽樣,就政治團體選取若干政黨幹部,而職業團體則以農會及工會幹部為主,進行深度訪談研究,以求論文本身在理論性論述之外,尚可透過訪談資料予以補充說明,增進其實務上的參考價值。
    從研究結果發現,三種不同的選舉制度營造出三種截然不同的團體空間-單記投票法產生注重實力原則的競爭場域,而全額連記法則產出強調一致性的團結場域,至於限制連記法則是營造出以協商為主的共治場域,三種選制所產出的結果本身無優劣之別,端賴團體所欲達成的目標而定,期盼透過本研究成果,能提供各類人民團體在設計其選舉制度時的參考依據,擇定符合其團體屬性的選制。
    Three electoral rules are widely employed in Taiwan: (1) plurality (for the presidential- and mayoral-elections, etc.), (2) SNTV (for the legislator and city councilor elections, etc.) and (3) block/limited vote (for all kinds of people associations' elections, including political parties). There have been plenty of researches studied on the plurality, SNTV and their political consequences in recently years, yet block/limited vote has attracted little attention from academic community. The goal of this study, therefore, is to explore the electoral rules of people associations and its impacts on faction politics and competition patterns. Moreover, this study attempts to investigate the theoretical base of block/limited vote as well as to collect first-hand data by in-depth interviews with many social groups. As a pioneer study, this paper attempts to open the door of the ”secret garden” of people associations' elections in Taiwan.
    This study shows that the different electoral rules used in different groups will result in totally distinctive environments. Single vote produces a competitive situation based on candidate's capability and influence; block vote leads to an atmosphere of unity; while limited vote tends toward a climate of negotiation and cooperation.
    Relation: 選舉研究 , 13(1) , 1-42
    Data Type: article
    DOI 連結: http://dx.doi.org/10.6612%2ftjes.2006.13.01.01-42
    DOI: 10.6612/tjes.2006.13.01.01-42
    Appears in Collections:[選舉研究 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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