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    題名: 台灣電視氣象播報傳播研究--以一個颱風的生與死為例
    TV Weathercast in Taiwan – A Case Study on the Life Cycle of a Typhoon
    作者: 陳秀鳳
    貢獻者: 關尚仁
    王亞維

    陳秀鳳
    關鍵詞: 颱風
    氣象主播
    氣象傳播
    科學傳播
    訊息呈現
    媒體設計
    Typhoon
    Weather presenter
    Meteorological communication
    Science communication
    Message presentation
    Media design
    日期: 2017
    上傳時間: 2017-12-01 12:05:52 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 全球極端氣候、天災頻仍,氣象訊息與民眾生活息息相關,根據中央氣象局104年調查,民眾獲得氣象資訊的管道仍以「電視」占最多數,氣象傳播是科學傳播的一環,本研究以一個颱風從生到死為範圍,對四位電視氣象主播晚間新聞時段氣象預報,分訊息呈現、媒體設計、播報展演等三個層面進行內容分析,並輔之以四位主播的深度訪談,探討國內電視氣象主播在颱風警報發佈前、警報發佈期間與警報解除後,如何對閱聽大眾進行傳播。

    近年來由於媒體競爭激烈,使得電視氣象預報從颱風還在一兩千公里外就開始眾聲喧嘩。本研究發現,氣象主播的科學背景會影響其颱風播報敘事結構,對於尚處遙遠的颱風,任立渝、林嘉愷用語比較保守,戴立綱語多暗示,王淑麗暗示性最強、使用篇幅也最多。在警報發佈期間,任立渝偏重颱風分析,林嘉愷擅長運用圖表解析即時風雨狀況,戴立綱敘事強調生活化提醒閱聽人防颱防淹水,王淑麗用語相對生動活潑、善用周遭事物比擬陳述颱風。在颱風警報解除後,任立渝、林嘉愷和戴立綱立即恢復平日氣象播報格式,惟王淑麗仍停留颱風訊息的陳述。在媒體設計上,林嘉愷使用的虛擬棚、鏡面和圖表,在視覺化的設計和呈現都較其他三人為佳。在播報展演上,四位主播各有風格,任立渝誠懇嚴肅、林嘉愷草根親和、戴立綱急切亢奮、王淑麗則走輕鬆活潑路線。手勢和觸控筆是氣象主播很重要的展演,手勢是一種肢體表演,觸控筆則是展現專業分析的工具,視覺性的動態展演是聚焦觀眾注意力的方式。

    綜觀分析結果,本研究也提出颱風氣象播報準則,氣象主播的長期專業形象是其一,訊息呈現的敘事結構必須隨著颱風逼近而機動調整,當颱風地處遙遠時,對於颱風的敘事以「教育」觀眾大氣環境變化為主;當颱風逐漸靠近時,颱風動態路徑的解析說明展演能力,是氣象播報的決勝關鍵;當颱風警報發佈後,對台灣陸地影響的預估解釋能力則是觀眾收視關切的重點。至於搭配的氣象鏡面宜以視覺化為原則,追求圖表色調文字簡單明瞭且可視性高,並且讓觀眾熟悉且習慣這些圖表規格的呈現,惟須避免造成視覺疲勞。而展演方式則視個人風格特色而定,有些人適合沈穩嚴肅,有些人適合親切活潑,但考量電視是視覺展演的平台,動的畫面會比靜的畫面吸引觀眾,不論是眼神、表情、手勢、觸控筆、左右走動都是牽動觀眾視覺的重要元素,讓主播的講解、動作與鏡面三者在視聽感官上的互動,達到人機一體展演的效果。

    氣象主播的個性發揮與風格確立,關係品牌形象與信賴感。專業氣象人有過實務或學術訓練,如果加上好的展演訓練及觀眾緣,或者是非氣象專業的新聞人,經由豐富的新聞訓練及額外自修,都能獲得觀眾的喜愛與信賴。本研究經由對四位氣象主播播報的分析與歸納,最後提出一套颱風氣象播報準則,俾以提供有志從事電視(影音)氣象播報工作者之參考。
    Since the world has experienced extreme weather and natural disasters constantly, weather information has been closely related to the lives of human being. According to the survey conducted by the Central Meteorological Bureau in 2015, TV is still the main channel for the public to access to meteorological information and meteorological communication is a part of science communication. Based on a typhoon from the birth to death, this study explores 4 weather presenters during prime time broadcasting by the use of content analysis which includes 3 aspects: message presentation, media design and performace. Also, by conducting in-depth interviews with the 4 presenters, this study examines how the domestic weather presenters communicates with the public before and during the authorities announces the typhoon alert, and after the alert is lifted.

    News media face fierce competition in recent years which leads to the rise of infotainment. For example, TV weather presenter starts to dramatize the strength of typhoon when it's just 1000km or 2000km away. This study found that presenter’s academic background in science does affect the structure of narration. When typhoon is still far away and the impact is variable, Ren Li-yu and Lin Jia-kai are more likely to present with a conservative tone while Dai Li-kang is more suggestive. Wang Shu-li has the strongest suggestive tone. During the alert, Ren Li-yu focuses on the typhoon analysis, Lin Jia-kai is fond of using charts and graphics to analyze the current wind speed and rainfall. Dai Li-gang puts more emphasis on reminding audience to be cautious and to do as much as one can to prevent the typhoon. Wang Shu-li’s style is relatively lively and she tends to make an analogy with surrounding things to describe the typhoon. After the typhoon alert is lifted, Ren Li-yu, Lin Jia-kai and Dai Li-gang resumes to the usual weather broadcasting style immediately. However, Wang Shu-li’s way of presenting stays the same. From the aspect of media design, Lin Jia-kai presents in a virtual studio with particular TV screen layout, charts and graphics which is clearer and better than the other three. When it comes to performace style, the 4 presenters have their own style, Ren Li-yu is sincere and serious. On the other hand, Lin Jia-kai is more approachable and affinitive. Dai Li-gang seemed to be more aggressive and provocative. Lastly, Wang Shu-li tends to present the program with a lively style. Gestures and stylus could be important tools while presenting. Gesture weighs during broadcasting while the stylus could be used to show their professionalism, attracting more viewers.

    From the results of the analysis, the study also proposed typhoon forecasting criteria, first of all, the weather presenter’s long-term professional image. The narrative structure of the message must be adjusted as the typhoon approaches. When the typhoon is far away, the narration should be focused on “educating” the audience the knowledge of the atmospheric environment. While the typhoon is gradually close, the capacity to analyze the typhoon is the key to prevail against others. When the typhoon alert is announced, the ability to explain how the typhoon would impact Taiwan is the concern of audience. The key principle for weather forecast's animated background is visualization. The graphics and texts should be simple and easily digestible. Also, the program should let viewers absorb and familiarize with these presented charts. One thing that needs be avoided is visual fatigue. In terms of performace, some presenters are calm and serious, some are cordial and lively. Since television relies heavily on visualization, moving pictures are more eye-catching than still images. Otherwise, both eye contact and facial expressions, gestures, the use of touch pen, or even the body movement all play a dispensable role. Combining weather presenter’s narrative, gesture and chart, can deliver the best weather forecasting performance.

    TV weather presenter’s personality and personal style establishment is helpful to build brand image and earn the trust of the audience. Professional weather presenter with practical and academic training, plus good performance training; or for journalist without meteorological background, through abundant professional news training and self-study, they can win audience’s heart and trust.
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    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    傳播學院碩士在職專班
    104941001
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1049410011
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[傳播學院碩士在職專班] 學位論文

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