對於禮樂的重視，是春秋時期「諸夏」集團之文化特點，也是此集團之文化認同的核心。然而在春秋史料中，卻存在長期被忽略的材料，顯示春秋時期「戎狄」的思想家（如由余）對於「諸夏」的禮樂觀，曾經提出批判性的看法。這些批判性看法，個人稱之為「反諸夏文化」思想。學界過去的研究一般認為：以批判禮樂為要點的「反諸夏文化」思想，其起源是內生的（endogenous），是起於「諸夏」思想家對於「諸夏」思想的反省與自我批判，墨子和老子可作為代表。本計畫無意質疑內生說，但嘗試指出另一種可能性：以批判禮樂為要點的「反諸夏文化」思想，其起源亦有可能是外生的（exogenous），是起於「戎狄」思想家對於「諸夏文化」的否定與質疑。 This research project aims to investigate the possible Yi-Di origins of cultural Counter-Zhuxiaism which emerged at the later part of the Spring and Autumn period. By cultural Counter-Zhuxiaism I mean the strands of thought which were critical to the view that the rituals (li) were the fundamental means for achieving good political life. Cultural Counter-Zhuxiaism could be found in the thought of Mozi and Laozi. The widely accepted academic view regards their thought as originating from self-criticism of Zhuxia’s thinkers. In contrast to this view, I argue for the possibility that the Cultural Counter-Zhuxiaism of Mozi and Laozi might originated from thinkers of Man, Yi, Rong and Di. In other words, it was not endogenous but rather exogenous.