做為國際關係學門當中安全研究重要項目之一的「歐洲安全」，在經由冷戰時期與後冷戰時期的理論辯證與政策實踐進程，已成為相關領域的重要範例。本文將有系統的以區域安全、國際關係、全球體系三個不同層次面向理論當中各自所屬的理性主義與非理性主義做為理論架構，檢驗歐洲安全分別在冷戰與後冷戰時期的發展，以了解各理論的解釋效度與適用性。由本研究對於歐洲安全的交叉檢驗可以發現，冷戰時期以權力為安全關係核心，形成了長期區域集團對抗的國際雙極體系，因此，上述三個層次的理論當中的理性主義，對於此時期的歐洲安全發展較具解釋力;而各理論中的非理性因素對於後冷戰時期區域秩序的重建、共享觀念與價值的建構、以軟實力做為規範傳播工具，提供更為有效的解釋。總之，歐洲在安全政策的合作與統合進程，為理論的辯證與檢驗，提供了多元選項與適用範例。 The dynamic development of European security in both theoretical debate and policy practice has made its research a momentous model in the field of security studies. This article aims at exploring various theoretical structures of European security by systematically examining both rationalism and non-rationalism in regional security, international relations theories, and global systems. Core issues of focus are allocated at three levels. The article applies a theoretical basis to the volatile evolution of European security during the Cold War era and the post-Cold War era in order to assess reliability and validity of each theory involved. This cross-examination of the three-level theoretical structures suggests that developments of European security in the two eras can be better accounted by rationalism and non-rationalism, respectively. Rationalism explains that the Cold War European security was characterized by an international bipolarity where power was the core of security dilemma between the two confrontational blocs. On the other hand, non-rationalism offers a better reasoning for European security unfolding after the end of the Cold War concerning re-construction of regional order, constitution of shared ideas and values, and employments of soft power as means of norms dissemination. In short, cooperation and integration of security policy in Europe have perfectly provided theoretical debates and practical applications to academic fields of diversified accounts and research models.