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    題名: 2011-2017年歐盟因應孤狼恐怖主義威脅之政策分析與成效評估
    Analysis and Evaluation of European Union's Policy to Counter Threat from Lone-wolf Terrorism between 2011-2017
    作者: 黃嘉郁
    Huang, Chia Yu
    貢獻者: 盧業中
    Lu, Yeh Chung
    黃嘉郁
    Huang, Chia Yu
    關鍵詞: 孤狼恐怖主義
    歐盟反恐政策
    激進化
    暴力極端主義
    本土恐怖主義
    外國恐怖主義戰士
    Lone-wolf Terrorism
    Counter-terrorism Policy of European Union
    Radicalisation
    Violent Extremism
    Home-grown Terrorism
    Foreign Terrorist Fighters
    日期: 2017
    上傳時間: 2018-01-03 16:23:26 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本論文以近年歐盟會員國境內之孤狼恐怖攻擊趨勢出發,分析歐盟因應孤狼恐怖主義威脅所制定之反恐政策,同時評估歐盟反恐政策之內外反恐成效,藉此檢視孤狼恐怖主義與歐盟反恐政策之因果關係。孤狼恐怖主義緣起於美國「無領袖反抗運動」與「暴力激進化」,並透過「全球伊斯蘭反抗運動」與「外國恐怖主義戰士」成為歐盟內部安全之威脅來源;而歐盟反恐政策之決策機構與執行機關,業已透過戰略方針與行動計畫等歐盟反恐法律文件,對內建立合作機制與輔助工具等內部反恐網絡,藉此強化歐盟與歐盟會員國之間的警察合作、司法合作、資訊與情報交換合作、以及邊境安全合作;對外則透過國際協定形式,與重要第三國以及國際組織建構外部反恐網絡,以雙邊與多邊反恐合作形式強化歐盟反恐能量。本論文亦以四起孤狼恐怖攻擊個案分析歐盟會員國層級之反恐措施,分析近年歐盟孤狼恐怖主義之現況與趨勢。
    本論文發現,歐盟孤狼恐怖主義來自「聖戰恐怖主義」、「本土恐怖主義」、與「外國恐怖主義戰士」等三種威脅,而歐盟近年因應孤狼恐怖主義威脅之反恐政策與措施,已朝向2005年11月30日歐盟部長理事會《歐盟反恐政策》四大反恐戰略的「預防」層面發展,並以外國恐怖主義戰士為重要反恐目標;此外,歐盟除了著手打擊「激進化」與「暴力極端主義」等導致孤狼恐怖主義之根本原因原因外,亦持續因應敘利亞與伊拉克等衝突地區之「返國外國恐怖主義戰士」所帶來的後伊斯蘭國時代孤狼恐怖主義威脅。
    With the trend of lone-wolf terrorism in member states of the European Union, the thesis analyzes EU’s policy to counter threat from lone-wolf terrorism and also evaluates internal and external effectiveness of EU’s counter-terrorism policy, in an attempt to examine the correlation between lone-wolf terrorism and EU’s counter-terrorism policy. Lone-wolf terrorism originated in the United States from the “Leaderless Resistance” and “Violent Extremism” and further threatened EU’s internal security via “Global Islamic Resistance Movement” and “Foreign Terrorist Fighters.” The decision-making as well as the executing agencies of EU’s counter-terrorism policy has established mechanisms of cooperation and policy toolkits for internal counter-terrorism network by means of EU’s legal documents of counter-terrorism, strategic guidelines and implementing programs included, in order to consolidate cooperation of police, justice, exchange of communication and intelligence, as well as border security between EU and member states. Meanwhile, EU has also been constructing its external counter-terrorism network with bilateral and multilateral agreements with third states and international organizations of importance. The thesis also offers four case studies of lone-wolf terrorist attacks of EU’s member states to analyze conditions and trends of lone-wolf terrorism in EU.
    The thesis concludes that “Jihadist terrorism,” “Home-grown Terrorism,” and “Foreign Terrorist Fighters” are the three main types of threat of lone-wolf terrorism in EU, and that EU counter-terrorism policy has been developing strategy of “prevention”, one of which stated in “EU’s Counter-terrorism Strategies” of November 30th, 2005, by Council of the European Union, and considering foreign terrorist fighters as its main target. Additionally, EU has been countering not only root causes of lone-wolf terrorism, such as “radicalisation” and “violent extremism,” but also future threats from “Returning Foreign Terrorists Fighters” heading back home from Syria and Iraq in the Era of Post-Islamic State.
    參考文獻: 壹、 中文文獻
    一、 專書
    Earl Babbie著,林秀雲譯,社會科學研究方法:第十三版(臺北:雙葉,2013年)。
    汪毓瑋,恐怖主義威脅及反恐政策與作為(上)(臺北:元照,2016年)。
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    王鵬程,「孤狼式恐怖主義發展與因應策略之研究」,國防雜誌,第31卷第4期(2016年),頁19-40。
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    王宏偉,「應對孤狼恐怖主義:官僚模式的困境與公共參與」,第七屆「恐怖主義與國家安全」學術暨實務研討會(桃園:中央警察大學,2011年10月31日),頁11-18。
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    四、 網路資料
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    貳、 外文文獻
    一、 專書
    Conner, Jeffrey & Flynn, Carol Rollie, Report: Lone Wolf Terrorism (Washington D.C.: Georgetown University, 2015).
    Hamm, Mark S., Terrorism as Crime: From Oklahoma to Al-Qaeda and Beyond (New York: NYU Press, 2007).
    Hewitt, Christopher, Understanding Terrorism in America: From the Klan to Al Qaeda (New York: Routledge, 2003).
    Michael, George, Lone Wolf Terror and the Rise of Leaderless Resistance (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2012).
    Schmid, Alex, Handbook of Terrorism Research (London: Routledge, 2011).
    Simon, Jeffrey D., Lone Wolf Terrorism: Understanding the Growing Threat (New York: Prometheus Books, 2013).
    Spaaij, Ramón, Understanding Lone Wolf Terrorism: Global Patterns, Motivations and Prevention (Melbourne: Springer, 2012).
    Yin, Robert K., Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 4th ed. (CA: Sage, 2009).
    二、 專書論文
    McAllister, Bradley & Schmid, Alex, “Theories of Terrorism,” in Alex Schmid eds., The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research (London & New York: Routledge, 2011), pp. 201-271.
    Richardson, Louis, “The Roots of Terrorism: An Overview,” in Louis Richardson eds., The Roots of Terrorism (London & New York: Routledge, 2006), pp. 1-13.
    Wight, Colin, “NO: State Terrorism: Who Needs It?” in Richard Jackson &Samuel Justin eds., Contemporary Debates on Terrorism (London: Routledge, 2012), pp. 50-57.
    三、 期刊論文
    Bakker, Edwin & Graaf, Beatrice, “Preventing Lone Wolf Terrorism: Some CT Approaches Addressed,” Perspective on Terrorism, Vol. 5, No. 5-6 (2011), pp. 43-50.
    Barnes, Beau, “Confronting the One-Man Wolf Pack: Adapting Law Enforcement and Prosecution Responses to the Threat of Lone Wolf Terrorism,” Boston University Law Review, Vol. 92 (2012), pp. 1614-1662.
    Bates, Rodger A., “Dancing with Wolves: Today's Lone Wolf Terrorists,” The Journal of Public and Professional Sociology, Vol. 4, No. 1, Art. 1 (2012), pp. 1-14.
    Becker, Michael, “Explaining Lone Wolf Target Selection in the United States,” Studies in Conflict &Terrorism, Vol. 37, No. 11 (2014), pp. 959-978.
    Ganor, Boaz, “Terrorist Organization Typologies and the Probabilities of a Boomerang Effect,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, Vol. 31, No. 4 (2008), pp. 269-283.
    Gill, Paul, Horgan, John, & Deckert, Paige, “Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Lone Actor Terrorists,” Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol. 59, No. 2 (2014), pp. 425-435.
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    McCauley, Clark, Moskalenko, Sophia, & Son, Benjamin Van, “Characteristics of Lone-Wolf Violent Offenders: A Comparison of Assassins and School Attackers,” Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol. 7, No. 1 (2013), pp. 3-8.
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    Philips, Peter J. & Pohl, Gabriela, “Economic Profiling of the Lone Wolf Terrorists: Can Economics Provide Behavioral Investigative Advice?” Vol. 7, No. 2 (2011), Journal of Applied Security Research, pp. 151-177.
    Schmid, Alex, “The Revised Academic Consensus Definition of Terrorism,” Perspective on Terrorism, Vol. 6, No. 2 (2012), pp. 158-159.
    Shaffer, Ryan, “Jihad and Counter-Jihad in Europe: Islamic Radicals, Right-Wing Extremists, and Counter Terrorism Response,” Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 28, No. 2 (2016), pp. 383-394.
    Smith, Brent, “A Look at Terrorist Behavior: How They Prepare, Where They Strike,” NIJ Journal, Issue 260 (2008), pp. 2-6.
    Spaaij, Ramón, & Hamm, Mark S., “Key Issues and Research Agendas in Lone Wolf Terrorism,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, Vol.38, No. 3 (2015), pp. 167-178.
    Spaaij, Ramón, “The Enigma of Lone Wolf Terrorism: An Assessment,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, Vol. 33, No. 9 (2010), pp. 857-870.
    Turk, Austin T., “Sociology of Terrorism,” Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 30 (2004), pp. 271-286.
    Vasilenko, V.I., “The Concept and Typology of Terrorism,” Statutes and Decisions, Vol. 40, No. 5 (2004), p. 46-56.
    Weimann, Gabriel, “Lone Wolves in Cyberspace,” Journal of Terrorism Research, Vol. 3, No. 2 (2012), pp. 75-90.
    Wight, Colin, “Theorizing Terrorism: The State, Structure and History,” International Relations, Vol. 29, No. 1 (2009), pp. 99-106.
    四、 官方文件
    Council of Europe, “Additional Protocol to the Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism,” 2015/10/22, https://rm.coe.int/168047c5ea.
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    Council of the European Union, “List of Council Preparatory Bodies,” 2017/06/19, http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-10075-2017-INIT/en/pdf.
    Council of the European Union, “REGULATION (EU) 2016/1624 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 14 September 2016 on the European Border and Coast Guard and amending Regulation (EU) 2016/399 of the European Parliament and of the Council and repealing Regulation (EC) No 863/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Council Regulation (EC) No 2007/2004 and Council Decision 2005/267/EC,” 2016/09/14, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32016R1624&from=EN.
    Council of the European Union, “Revised EU Strategy for Combating Radicalisation and Recruitment to Terrorism,” 2008/11/14, http://www.statewatch.org/news/2008/nov/eu-council-r-and-r-revised-15175-08.pdf.
    Council of the European Union, “Revised EU Strategy for Combating Radicalisation and Recruitment to Terrorism,” 2014/05/19, http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-9956-2014-INIT/en/pdf.
    Council of the European Union, “Riga Joint Statement,” 2015/02/02, http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-5855-2015-INIT/en/pdf.
    Council of the European Union, “The European Union Counter-Terrorism Strategy,” 2005/11/30, http://register.consilium.europa.eu/doc/srv?l=EN&f=ST%2014469%202005%20REV%204.
    Counter-Terrorism Coordinator, “Implementation of the Counter-terrorism Agenda Set by European Council,” 2016/12/10, http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-14260-2016-ADD-1-EXT-1/en/pdf.
    Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2014, https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/239631.pdf (Washington D.C.: Department of State, 2015).
    Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2015, https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258249.pdf (Washington D.C.: Department of State, 2016).
    Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2016, https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/272488.pdf (Washington D.C.: Department of State, 2017).
    Eurojust & Europol, “Cooperation Agreement between Eurojust and Europol,” 2009/10/01, http://www.eurojust.europa.eu/doclibrary/Eurojust-framework/agreements/Agreement%20between%20Eurojust%20and%20Europol%20(2010)/Eurojust-Europol-2010-01-01-EN.pdf.
    Eurojust, “Foreign Terrorist Fighters: Eurojust’s Views on the Phenomenon and the Criminal Justice Response,” 2017/04/19, http://www.statewatch.org/news/2017/jun/eu-eurojust-ff-finding.pdf.
    Eurojust, Eurojust Annual Report 2011, http://eurojust.europa.eu/doclibrary/corporate/eurojust%20Annual%20Reports/Annual%20Report%202011/Annual-Report-2011-EN.pdf (The Hague: Eurojust, 2012).
    Eurojust, Eurojust Annual Report 2012, http://eurojust.europa.eu/doclibrary/corporate/eurojust%20Annual%20Reports/Annual%20Report%202012/Annual-Report-2012-EN.pdf (The Hague: Eurojust, 2013).
    Eurojust, Eurojust Annual Report 2013, http://eurojust.europa.eu/doclibrary/corporate/eurojust%20Annual%20Reports/Annual%20Report%202013/Annual-Report-2013-EN.pdf (The Hague: Eurojust, 2014).
    Eurojust, Eurojust Annual Report 2014, http://eurojust.europa.eu/doclibrary/corporate/eurojust%20Annual%20Reports/Annual%20Report%202014/Annual-Report-2014-EN.pdf (The Hague: Eurojust, 2015).
    Eurojust, Eurojust Annual Report 2015, http://eurojust.europa.eu/doclibrary/corporate/eurojust%20Annual%20Reports/Annual%20Report%202015/Annual-Report-2015-EN.pdf (The Hague: Eurojust, 2016).
    Eurojust, Eurojust Annual Report 2016, http://www.eurojust.europa.eu/doclibrary/corporate/eurojust Annual Reports/Annual Report 2016/AR2016_EN.pdf (The Hague: Eurojust, 2017).
    Eurojust, Eurojust Multi-Annual Strategy 2019-2021, http://www.eurojust.europa.eu/doclibrary/corporate/mas/Multi-Annual%20Strategy%202019-2021/MAS_2019-2021_EN.pdf (The Hague: Eurojust, 2017).
    European Commission, “COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL: Strengthening law enforcement cooperation in the EU: the European Information Exchange Model (EIXM),” 2012/12/07, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52012DC0735&from=EN.
    European Commission, “COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL concerning Terrorist recruitment: addressing the factors contributing to violent radicalisation,” 2005/09/21, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52005DC0313&from=EN.
    European Commission, “COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL, The EU Internal Security Strategy in Action: Five steps towards a more secure Europe,” 2010/11/22, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52010DC0673&from=EN.
    European Commission, “Delivering an area of freedom, security and justice for Europe's citizens Action Plan Implementing the Stockholm Programme,” 2010/04/20, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52010DC0171&from=EN.
    European Commission, “Preventing Radicalisation: Role of the European Commission,” https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/e-library/docs/fight-against-radicalisation/role_of_the_eu_en.pdf.
    European Commission, “Schengen Information System (SIS II) goes live,” 2013/04/09, https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/what-is-new/news/news/2013/20130409_01_en.
    European Commission, “The European Agenda on Security,” 2015/04/28, https://www.cepol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/european-agenda-security.pdf.
    European Commission, Preventing Radicalisation to Terrorism and Violent Extremism, https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/what-we-do/networks/radicalisation_awareness_network/ran-best-practices/docs/ran_collection-approaches_and_practices_en.pdf (Brussels: Radicalisation Awareness Network, 2017).
    European Council, “Conclusions and Plan of Actions of the Extraordinary European Council Meeting on 21 September 2001,” 2001/09/21, https://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/140.en.pdf.
    European Council, “Declaration on Combating Terrorism,” 2004/03/25, http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/DECL-25.3.pdf.
    European Council, “The Hague Programme: Strengthening Freedom, Security and Justice in the European Union,” 2005/03/03, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2005:053:0001:0014:EN:PDF.
    European Council, “The Stockholm Programme: An Open and Secure Europe Serving and Protecting the Citizens,” 2009/12/02, https://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafficking/sites/antitrafficking/files/the_stockholm_programme_-_an_open_and_secure_europe_en_1.pdf.
    European Counter Terrorism Centre, “Lone actor attacks – Recent developments,” 2016/07/20, https://www.europol.europa.eu/publications-documents/lone-actor-attacks-recent-developments.
    European Parliament & Council of the European Union, “DIRECTIVE (EU) 2017/541 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 15 March 2017 on combating terrorism and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA and amending Council Decision 2005/671/JHA,” 2017/03/15, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32017L0541&from=EN.
    European Parliament & Council of the European Union, “DIRECTIVE (EU) 2016/681 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 27 April 2016 on the use of passenger name record (PNR) data for the prevention, detection, investigation and prosecution of terrorist offences and serious crime,” 2016/04/27, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32016L0681&qid=1500824877993&from=en.
    European Parliament & Council of the European Union, “DIRECTIVE (EU) 2015/849 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 20 May 2015 on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purposes of money laundering or terrorist financing, amending Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Directive 2005/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Directive 2006/70/EC,” 2015/05/20, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32015L0849&from=EN.
    European Parliament & Council of the European Union, “DIRECTIVE 2005/60/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 26 October 2005 on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing,” 2005/10/26, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32005L0060&from=EN.
    European Parliament & Council of the European Union, “DIRECTIVE 2014/41/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 3 April 2014 regarding the European Investigation Order in criminal matters,” 2013/04/03, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32014L0041&from=EN.
    European Parliament, “EU Plan of Action on Combating Terrorism,” 2004/03/25, http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/EU_PlanOfAction10586.pdf
    European Parliament, “European Parliament decision of 6 July 2017 on setting up a special committee on terrorism, its responsibilities, numerical strength and term of office,” 2017/07/06, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P8-TA-2017-0307+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN&language=EN.
    European Parliament, “EU-US cooperation in Justice and Home Affairs – an overview,” 2016/04/06, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2016/580892/EPRS_BRI(2016)580892_EN.pdf.
    European Parliament, “Passenger Name Record: New Measures to Tackle Crime and Terrorism,” 2016/04/13, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/top-stories/20150218TST24901/pnr-passenger-name-record.
    European Parliament, The European Union’s Policies on Counter-Terrorism: Relevance, Coherence and Effectiveness, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2017/583124/IPOL_STU(2017)583124_EN.pdf (Brussels: European Parliament, 2017).
    European Parliament, The European Union’s Policies on Counter-Terrorism: Relevance, Coherence, and Effectiveness, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2017/583124/IPOL_STU(2017)583124_EN.pdf (Brussels: European Parliament, 2017).
    European Union & United States of America, “Agreement between the European Union and the United States of America on the processing and transfer of Financial Messaging Data from the European Union to the United States for purposes of the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program,” 2009/11/30, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:22010A0113(01)&from=EN.
    European Union & United States of America, “Agreement between the United States of America and the European Union on the use and transfer of passenger name records to the United States Department of Homeland Security,” 2011/12/14, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:22006A1027(01).
    European Union & United States of America, “Agreement between the United States of America and the European Union on the Protection of Personal Information Relating to the Prevention, Investigation, Detection, and Prosecution Criminal Offenses,” 2016/06/02, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:22016A1210(01)&from=EN.
    European Union External Action Service, “New Transatlantic Agenda,” 1995/12/03, http://eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/us/docs/new_transatlantic_agenda_en.pdf.
    Europol, “FBI and Europol Strengthen Joint Fight against Foreign Terrorist Fighters,” 2016/04/07, https://www.europol.europa.eu/newsroom/news/fbi-and-europol-strengthen-joint-fight-against-foreign-terrorist-fighters.
    Europol, “ICE Signs Agreement to Join Europol’s Efforts to Target People Smuggling,” 2015/03/24, https://www.europol.europa.eu/newsroom/news/ice-signs-agreement-to-join-europol%E2%80%99s-efforts-to-target-people-smuggling.
    Europol, 2015 Consolidated Annual Activity Report, https://www.europol.europa.eu/activities-services/main-reports/europol-review-2015 (The Hague: Europol, 2016).
    Europol, Changes in Modus Operandi of Islamic State (IS) Revisited, https://www.europol.europa.eu/publications-documents/changes-in-modus-operandi-of-islamic-state-revisited (The Hague: Europol, 2016).
    Europol, European Union Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2012, https://www.europol.europa.eu/activities-services/main-reports/te-sat-2012-eu-terrorism-situation-and-trend-report (The Hague: Europol, 2012).
    Europol, European Union Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2013, https://www.europol.europa.eu/activities-services/main-reports/te-sat-2013-eu-terrorism-situation-and-trend-report (The Hague: Europol, 2013).
    Europol, European Union Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2014, https://www.europol.europa.eu/activities-services/main-reports/te-sat-2014-eu-terrorism-situation-and-trend-report (The Hague: Europol, 2014).
    Europol, European Union Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2015, https://www.europol.europa.eu/activities-services/main-reports/european-union-terrorism-situation-and-trend-report-2015 (The Hague: Europol, 2015).
    Europol, European Union Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2016, https://www.europol.europa.eu/activities-services/main-reports/european-union-terrorism-situation-and-trend-report-te-sat-2016 (The Hague: Europol, 2016).
    Europol, European Union Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2017, https://www.europol.europa.eu/activities-services/main-reports/eu-terrorism-situation-and-trend-report-te-sat-2017 (The Hague: Europol, 2017).
    Europol, Europol Review: General Report on Europol Activities 2015, https://www.europol.europa.eu/activities-services/main-reports/europol-review-2015 (The Hague: Europol, 2016).
    Europol, Europol Strategy 2016-2020, https://www.europol.europa.eu/publications-documents/europol-strategy-2016-2020 (The Hague: Europol, 2016).
    Europol, Internet-Organized Crime Threat Assessment 2017, https://www.europol.europa.eu/activities-services/main-reports/internet-organised-crime-threat-assessment-iocta-2017 (The Hague: Europol, 2017).
    Europol, Serious and Organized Crime Threat Assessment 2017, https://www.europol.europa.eu/activities-services/main-reports/european-union-serious-and-organised-crime-threat-assessment-2017 (The Hague: Europol, 2017).
    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Terrorism 2000-2005, https://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/terrorism-2002-2005 (Washington D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2015).
    Frontex, Annual Activity Report 2016, http://frontex.europa.eu/assets/About_Frontex/Governance_documents/Annual_report/2016/Annual_Activity_Report_2016.pdf (Warsaw: Frontex, 2017).
    General Assembly, “Plan of Action for Preventing Violent Extremism,” A/70/674, 2015/12/24, https://www.thegctf.org/Portals/1/Documents/Foundational%20Documents/Background%20Documents/UNSG%20PVE%20Plan%20of%20Action.pdf?ver=2016-03-31-100248-117.
    General Assembly, “United Nations Global Counter Terrorism Strategy,” A/RES/60/288, 2006/09/08, http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/60/288.
    General Assembly, “United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy Review,” A/RES/70/291, 2016/07/01, http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/291.
    German Federal Government, “National Programme to Prevent Islamist Extremism,” 2017/03/07, https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/national-strategy-for-preventing-islamist-extremism_en.pdf.
    German Federal Government, Federal Government’s Strategy on Preventing Extremism and Promoting Democracy, https://www.bmfsfj.de/blob/109002/5278d578ff8c59a19d4bef9fe4c034d8/strategie-der-bundesregierung-zur-extremismuspraevention-und-demokratiefoerderung-data.pdf (Berlin: German Federal Ministry of the Interior, 2016).
    Gouvernement.fr, “Anti-terrorism: the Prime Minister announces exceptional measures,” 2015/01/21, http://www.gouvernement.fr/en/anti-terrorism-the-prime-minister-announces-exceptional-measures.
    Gouvernement.fr, “Parliament adopts the intelligence bill,” 2015/06/30, http://www.gouvernement.fr/en/parliament-adopts-the-intelligence-bill.
    Gouvernement.fr, “The fight against jihadism is the great challenge of our generation,” 2016/05/10, http://www.gouvernement.fr/en/the-fight-against-jihadism-is-the-great-challenge-of-our-generation.
    Gouvernement.fr, “The fight against jihadism is the great challenge of our generation,” 2016/05/10, http://www.gouvernement.fr/en/the-fight-against-jihadism-is-the-great-challenge-of-our-generation.
    Kerchove, Gilles de, “Countering Violent Extremism: Governments Can’t Do It Alone,” 2010/09, http://www.enargywebzine.eu/spip.php?article230.
    Library of Congress U.S., “Germany: Act to Improve Anti-Terror Information Exchange in Force,” http://www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/germany-act-to-improve-anti-terror-information-exchange-in-force/.
    Ministère des Armées, “Gouvernance de la garde nationale,” 2017/07/04, http://www.defense.gouv.fr/reserve/presentation-generale/gouvernance/gouvernance-de-la-garde-nationale.
    New York City Police Department, Radicalization in the West: The Homegrown Threat, http://mappingsharia.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/NYPD_Report-Radicalization_in_the_West1.pdf (New York: New York City Police Department, 2007).
    Radicalisation Awareness Network, Responses to Returnees: Foreign Terrorist Fighters and Their Families, https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/ran_br_a4_m10_en.pdf (Brussels: Radicalisation Awareness Network, 2017).
    Secretary of State for the Home Department, Counter-Extremism Strategy, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/470088/51859_Cm9148_Accessible.pdf (London: Counter-Extremism Directorate Home Office, 2015).
    Security Council, “Letter dated 13 May 2015 from the Chair of the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001) concerning counter-terrorism addressed to the President of the Security Council,” 2015/05/14, http://www.un.org/en/sc/ctc/docs/2015/N1514129_EN.pdf.
    Security Council, “Resolution 1373 (2001),” S/RES/1373 (2001). 2001/09/28, http://www.un.org/en/sc/ctc/specialmeetings/2012/docs/United%20Nations%20Security%20Council%20Resolution%201373%20(2001).pdf.
    Security Council, “Resolution 1566 (2004),” S/RES/1566 (2004), 2004/10/08, http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/WG%20SRES%201566.pdf.
    Security Council, “Resolution 2178 (2014),” S/RES/2178 (2014), 2014/09/24, http://www.un.org/en/sc/ctc/docs/2015/SCR%202178_2014_EN.pdf.
    The White House, National Strategy for Combating Terrorism 2003, https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/60172.pdf (Washington D.C.: The White House, 2003).
    The White House, National Strategy for Combating Terrorism 2006, https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/nsc/nsct/2006/ (Washington D.C.: The White House, 2006).
    五、 智庫報告
    Congressional Research Service, European Fighters in Syria and Iraq: Assessment, Response, and Issues for the United States, https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R44003.pdf (Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2015).
    Dalgaard-Nielson, Anja, Studying Violent Radicalization in Europe II: The Potential Contribution of Socio-psychological and Psychological Approach (DIIS Working Paper No. 2008/3), http://pure.diis.dk/ws/files/56379/WP08_3_Studying_Violent_Radicalization_In_Europe_II_The_Potential_Contribution_of_Sociopsychological_and_Psychological_Approaches.pdf (Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies, 2008).
    Funk, Marco & Trauner, Florian, “Transatlantic Counter-terrorism Cooperation,” European Union Institute for Security Studies, 2016/04/24, https://www.iss.europa.eu/sites/default/files/EUISSFiles/Alert%2015%20Counter%20terrorism.pdf.
    Institute for Economics and Peace, Global Terrorism Index 2012: Capturing the Impact of Terrorism for the Last Decade, https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/156010/2012-Global-Terrorism-Index-Report1.pdf (Sydney: Institute for Economics and Peace, 2012).
    Institute for Economics and Peace, Global Terrorism Index 2014: Measuring and Understanding the Impact of Terrorism, http://economicsandpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Global-Terrorism-Index-Report-2014.pdf (Sydney: Institute for Economics and Peace, 2014).
    Institute for Economics and Peace, Global Terrorism Index 2015: Measuring and Understanding the Impact of Terrorism, http://economicsandpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/2015-Global-Terrorism-Index-Report.pdf (Sydney: Institute for Economics and Peace, 2015).
    Institute for Economics and Peace, Global Terrorism Index 2016: Measuring and Understanding the Impact of Terrorism, http://visionofhumanity.org/app/uploads/2017/02/Global-Terrorism-Index-2016.pdf (Sydney: Institute for Economics and Peace, 2016).
    International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, “The Nice Attack and the Limits of Security Responses,” 2016/07/20, https://icct.nl/publication/the-nice-attack-and-the-limits-of-security-responses/.
    International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, The Foreign Fighters Phenomenon in the European Union: Profiles, Threats & Policies, https://www.icct.nl/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/ICCT-Report_Foreign-Fighters-Phenomenon-in-the-EU_1-April-2016_including-AnnexesLinks.pdf (The Hague: International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, 2016).
    International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence, “ICSR Insight: Up to 11,000 Foreign Fighters in Syria; Steep Rise among Western Europeans,” 2013/12/17, http://icsr.info/2013/12/icsr-insight-11000-foreign-fighters-syria-steep-rise-among-western-europeans/.
    International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence, “Foreign Fighter Total in Syria/Iraq Now Exceeds 20,000; Surpasses Afghanistan Conflict in the 1980s,” 2015/01/26, http://icsr.info/2015/01/foreign-fighter-total-syriairaq-now-exceeds-20000-surpasses-afghanistan-conflict-1980s/.
    Meleagrou-Hitchens, Alexander & Kaderbhai, Nick, Research Perspectives on Online Radicalisation- A Literature Review 2006-2016, http://icsr.info/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/ResearchPerspectivesonOnlineRadicalisation.pdf (London: International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence, 2017).
    Millar, Alistair, “The UN, the EU, and the GCTF: Implications for Future Policy and Practice on Countering Terrorism and Preventing Violent Extremism,” CT MORSE, http://www.globalcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/2016-UNGA-think-piece.pdf.
    Pantucci, Raffaello, “A Typology of Lone Wolves: Preliminary Analysis of Lone Islamist Terrorists,” in Developments in Radicalisation and Political Violence (London: International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence, 2011).
    Royal United Services Institute, Lone-Actor and Small Cell Terrorist Attacks: A New Front in Counter-Terrorist Finance, https://rusi.org/sites/default/files/201701_op_lone-actor_and_small_cell_terrorist_attacks.1.pdf (London: Royal United Services Institute, 2017).
    Soufan Group, Foreign Fighters: An Updated Assessment of the Flow of Foreign Fighters into Syria and Iraq, http://soufangroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/TSG_ForeignFightersUpdate3.pdf (New York: The Soufan Group, 2015).
    Spaaij, Ramón, & Hamm, Mark S., Lone Wolf Terrorism in America: Using Knowledge of Radicalization Pathways to Forge Prevention Strategies, https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/248691.pdf (Rockville: National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 2015).
    Vidino, Lorenzo & Brandon, James, Countering Radicalization in Europe, http://icsr.info/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/ICSR-Report-Countering-Radicalization-in-Europe.pdf (London: International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence, 2012).
    六、 網路資料
    (一) 官方網站
    Council of Europe, http://www.coe.int/en/web/portal/home.
    Counter-Terrorism Committee, https://www.un.org/sc/ctc/.
    Department of State, https://www.state.gov/.
    EUR-lex, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/homepage.html.
    Eurojust, http://www.eurojust.europa.eu/Pages/home.aspx.
    European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/index_en.
    European Council & Council of the European Union, http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/home/.
    European Parliament Legislative Train Schedule, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/legislative-train/summary.
    European Parliament, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/portal/en.
    European Union External Action Service, https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage_en.
    Europol, https://www.europol.europa.eu/.
    Eurostat, http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/main/home.
    Frontex, http://frontex.europa.eu/.
    General Assembly Resolutions, http://www.un.org/en/sections/documents/general-assembly-resolutions/.
    Global Counterterrorism Forum, https://www.thegctf.org/.
    Gouvernement.fr, “Plan to Combat Violent Radicalisation and Terrorist Networks,” 2014/04/23, http://www.gouvernement.fr/en/plan-to-combat-violent-radicalisation-and-terrorist-networks.
    Gouvernement.fr, http://www.gouvernement.fr/en/news.
    International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence, http://icsr.info/.
    Interpol, https://www.interpol.int/.
    MI5, https://www.mi5.gov.uk/.
    Office of the Law Revision Counsel, United States Code, http://uscode.house.gov/.
    Royal United Services Institute: Lone-actor Terrorism, https://rusi.org/projects/lone-actor-terrorism.
    Security Council Resolutions, http://www.un.org/en/sc/documents/resolutions/.
    Stop-djihadisme.gouv.fr, http://www.stop-djihadisme.gouv.fr/.
    The White House, https://www.whitehouse.gov/.
    United Nations Office of Counter-Terrorism, http://www.un.org/en/counterterrorism/.
    (二) 資料庫
    Global Terrorism Database, https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/.
    International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events (ITERATE), http://library.duke.edu/data/collections/iterate.
    (三) 新聞報導
    Al Jazeera, “Timeline: Deadly attacks in Europe,” 2017/08/19, http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/08/timeline-deadly-attacks-europe-170818060629575.html.
    BBC News, “Attack on Nice: Who was Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel?,” 2016/08/19, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-36801763.
    BBC News, “Berlin market attack: How did Anis Amri escape?,” 2016/12/28, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-38425945.
    BBC News, “Manchester attack: What we know so far,” 2017/06/12, http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-manchester-40008389.
    BBC News, “Nice attack: Lorry driver confirmed as Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel,” 2016/07/15, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-36808020.
    BBC News, “Nice attack: What we know about the Bastille Day killings,” 2016/08/19, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-36801671.
    Bloomberg, “Here Are the Major Terror Attacks in Europe, From Paris to Oslo,” 2017/06/19, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-06-19/here-are-the-major-terror-attacks-in-europe-from-paris-to-oslo.
    CNN, “Gunman turns 'Batman' Screening into Real-life 'Horror Film',” 2012/07/21, http://edition.cnn.com/2012/07/20/us/colorado-theater-shooting/.
    Express, “Terror attacks timeline: From Paris and Brussels terror to most recent attacks in Europe,” 2017/08/18, http://www.express.co.uk/news/world/693421/Terror-attacks-timeline-France-Brussels-Europe-ISIS-killings-Germany-dates-terrorism.
    Fox News, “Timeline of recent terror attacks against the West,” 2017/09/15, http://www.foxnews.com/world/2017/09/15/timeline-recent-terror-attacks-against-west.html.
    France 24, “French state of emergency to be lifted July 26, Hollande confirms,” 2016/07/14, http://www.france24.com/en/20160714-france-state-emergency-will-be-lifted-july-26-says-hollande.
    NBC New York, “Timeline: Recent Deadly Terror Attacks in Europe,” 2017/06/04, http://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/national-international/Timeline-Deadly-Recent-Terror-Attacks-Europe-386902901.html.
    New York Times, “Blasts at Boston Marathon Kill 3 and Injure 100,” 2013/04/15, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/16/us/explosions-reported-at-site-of-boston-marathon.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.
    New York Times, “Orlando Gunman Attacks Gay Nightclub, Leaving 50 Dead,” 2016/06/12, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/13/us/orlando-nightclub-shooting.html.
    News Europe, “Timeline of Europe's terror attacks,” 2017/06/04, http://www.independent.ie/world-news/europe/timeline-of-europes-terror-attacks-35786085.html.
    Newsweek, “Timeline of Recent Terror Attacks in Western Europe,” 2017/04/08, http://www.newsweek.com/timeline-recent-terror-attacks-western-europe-580977.
    Reuters, “Brussels station attacker was secretive loner,” 2017/06/22, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-attacks-brussels-attacker/brussels-station-attacker-was-secretive-loner-idUSKBN19C2OA.
    Reuters, “French lawmakers extend state of emergency after Nice attack,” 2016/07/20, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-attacks-nice/french-lawmakers-extend-state-of-emergency-after-nice-attack-idUSKCN10009V.
    Reuters, “Timeline: Deadly attacks in Western Europe,” 2017/08/18, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-attacks-timeline/timeline-deadly-attacks-in-western-europe-idUSKCN1AX2EV.
    RTÉ, “Timeline - Terror attacks in Europe,” 2017/08/17, https://www.rte.ie/news/world/2017/0817/898178-europe-terror-attack-timeline/.
    The Globe and Mail, “‘Monstrosity’: More than 80 dead in truck attack in Nice, France,” 2016/07/14, https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/injuries-reported-after-truck-plows-into-crowd-in-nice-france/article30928400/?ref=http://www.theglobeandmail.com&.
    The Guardian, “Angela Merkel defends Germany's refugee policy after attacks,” 2016/07/28, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/28/merkel-rejects-calls-to-change-germanys-refugee-policy-after-attacks.
    The Guardian, “Berlin attack suspect Anis Amri had been on watchlist since January,” 2016/12/21, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/dec/21/berlin-attack-suspect-anis-amri-under-monitoring-since-january.
    The Guardian, “How Manchester bomber Salman Abedi was radicalised by his links to Libya,” 2017/05/28, https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/may/28/salman-abedi-manchester-arena-bomber-radicalisation.
    The Guardian, “Man wrongly arrested over Berlin attack says he fears for his life,” 2016/12/29, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/dec/29/naveed-baloch-man-wrongly-arrested-berlin-attack-fears-for-his-life.
    The Guardian, “Nice attack: truck driver named as France mourns 84 killed in Bastille Day atrocity – as it happened,” 2016/07/16, https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2016/jul/14/nice-bastille-day-france-attack-promenade-des-anglais-vehicle.
    The Guardian, “Soldiers shoot suspected terrorist dead at Brussels railway station,” 2017/06/21, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jun/20/soldiers-shoot-person-brussels-central-train-station-explosion-belgium.
    The Guardian, “What happened in Manchester? What we know so far about the attack,” 2017/05/24, https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/may/23/manchester-arena-attack-what-we-know-so-far.
    The Hindu, “Terror attacks in Europe: A timeline,” 2017/09/16, http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/terror-in-europe-a-timeline/article16910920.ece1.
    The Independent, “Brussels explosion: Prosecutors say major terror attack at station averted after bomb packed with nails fails,” 2017/06/21, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/brussels-central-station-explosion-bomb-attempted-terror-attack-latest-molenbeek-isis-allahu-akbar-a7800666.html.
    The Independent, “Charlie Hebdo shooting: At least 12 killed as shots fired at satirical magazine's Paris office,” 2015/01/07, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/charlie-hebdo-shooting-10-killed-as-shots-fired-at-satirical-magazine-headquarters-according-to-9962337.html.
    The Independent, “Oktoberfest bomb inquiry: Severed hand may prove 1980 attack was carried out by neo-Nazis and not a lone wolf,” 2015/02/04, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/oktoberfest-bomb-inquiry-severed-hand-may-prove-1980-attack-was-carried-out-by-neo-nazis-and-not-a-10024250.html.
    The Telegraph, “Berlin Christmas market attack: What we know so far,” 2016/12/21, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/12/20/berlin-christmas-market-attack-everything-know-far/.
    The Telegraph, “Brussels station blast: suspect 'wearing explosive belt' shot dead by troops,” 2017/06/21, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/06/20/traffic-halted-brussels-small-explosion-central-train-station/.
    The Telegraph, “Counter-terrorism Bill: What it contains,” 2014/11/26, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/islamic-state/11254950/Counter-terrorism-Bill-What-it-contains.html.
    The Telegraph, “Everything we know about Anis Amri, the suspected Berlin Christmas market attacker,” 2016/12/23, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/12/20/everything-know-suspected-berlin-christmas-market-attacker/.
    The Telegraph, “Isil claims responsibility for Manchester attack,” 2017/05/23, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/05/23/isil-claims-responsibility-manchester-attack-amaq/.
    The Telegraph, “Manchester bomber passed through Dusseldorf four days before the attack, German media reports,” 2017/05/25, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/05/25/manchester-bomber-dusseldorf-four-days-attack-german-media-reports/.
    The Telegraph, “Manchester terror attack: Everything we know,” 2017/05/26, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/0/manchester-terror-attack-everything-know-far/.
    The Telegraph, “Norway massacre: the worst terrorist atrocity in peacetime Norway,” 2012/04/26, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/norway/9206095/Norway-shooting-timeline-of-the-worst-terrorist-atrocity-in-peacetime-Europe.html.
    The Telegraph, “Paris terror attack: Everything we know on Saturday afternoon,” 2015/11/21, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/france/11995246/Paris-shooting-What-we-know-so-far.html.
    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    外交學系
    102253007
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1022530071
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[外交學系] 學位論文

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