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    Title: 論英國脫歐後在世界貿易組織之法律關係演變
    Change of British Legal Status under WTO after Brexit
    Authors: 戴文祈
    Tai, Wen-Chi
    Contributors: 薛景文
    Hsueh, Ching-Wen
    戴文祈
    Tai, Wen-Chi
    Keywords: 英國脫歐
    貿易權限
    歐盟東擴
    WTO承諾
    政府採購協定
    Brexit
    Trade competence
    EU enlargemen
    WTO commitment
    GPA
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2018-02-02 10:43:06 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 英國脫歐對國際社會投下一枚震撼彈,對於各方的影響甚鉅,尤其是英國和歐盟未來關係將牽動國際經貿板塊。儘管如此,其他會員更關心的是英國脫歐後,其在貿易場域之權利義務將如何改變,尤其是各國皆奉為圭臬之「世界貿易組織(World Trade Organization, WTO)」。

    自GATT時代以降,當時之「歐盟共同體(European Community)」即代替其成員國行使部分權力,而隨著歐盟更加緊密,成員國交出更多的貿易「權責(competence)」予歐盟,歐盟於WTO成立後即取得正式的會籍,並幾乎於所有貿易領域完全代理其成員國。英國脫歐的主要原因之一即為自歐盟奪回主權,而貿易主權當然包括在內。在歐盟已代替英國行使權利義務多年的情況下,英國基本上沒有屬於自身的承諾,而多是與歐盟的承諾「綑綁(bundle)」在一起。是以,儘管英國脫歐後還是保有會籍,但其如何在WTO下「生存」,取決於英國能否盡早建立屬於自己的承諾。

    對於英國如何建立自身的承諾,各方論者的看法天差地遠,有認為英國必須完全重新談判者,亦有認為英國得直接「複製、貼上(copy and paste)」歐盟之承諾者。本文參考諸多文獻後認為,英國應能複製、貼上多數不涉及「數量(quantum)」的承諾,並不會遭致太大的阻礙。惟一旦承諾涉及數量或配額,則情況將複雜許多,非英國和歐盟雙方能夠決定之事。此外,儘管英國擁有WTO會籍,但英國本身並非複邊協定的會員,如「政府採購協定(Agreement on Government Procurement, GPA)。英國脫歐後如何再次加入GPA並行使原有之權利義務,亦為待解決之問題。不過本文以為,以英國如此大之政府採購市場,再次加入GPA應不會受到太大之阻礙。
    Brexit has caused a stir in international society, which affects variety of stakeholders. Among many things being concerned, the relationship between Britain and European Union (EU) after Brexit is one of the issues catch people’s attention. Relationship between two draws attention from all over the world; however, countries other than UK and EU are obviously more interested in how those rights and obligations of Britain will change in multilateral or plurilateral trade forum after Brexit.

    Ever since GATT era, the European Community then has been represented its member states in several occasions of WTO, and with EU's member states being tighter, EU itself has acquired membership of WTO and act on behalf of its member states in almost all forums in WTO. Therefore, UK cannot possibly has its own commitment. Even though UK will still be a WTO member after Brexit, how to 'live' within it by establishing its own commitment as soon as possible is the real question.

    There are plenty of conjecture as to how UK can create its own commitment. Some said UK can simply 'copy and paste' EU's schedules, while other mentioned UK have to start from scratch by negotiating with all WTO members as a newcomer. After reviewing a considerable amount of articles, I believe UK can create most of its commitment by 'coping and pasting', except for those that concern with 'quantum'. For those particular commitments, the situation is so complex that require other WTO members to involve. In addition, UK is not a member of WTO plurilateral agreement-Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), how will UK that has such a huge government procurement market re-enter GPA is also a question that need to be solved.
    Reference: 中文部分
    1. 王泰銓,歐洲共同體法導論(1997)。
    2. 中華經濟研究院(WTO及RTA中心),WTO及RTA電子報,第395期。
    3. 周旭華,「歐洲共同體對外貿易關係的法律問題」,國立政治大學法律學研究所,(2000年)。
    4. 莊亞婷,「試析歐盟對外貿易協定之締結程序-以里斯本條約後的『歐洲議會』監督機制為中心」,政治大學國際經貿組織暨法律研究中心經貿法訊,162期,頁8-12。
    5. 羅昌發,國際貿易法(2010)。

    英文部分
    1. Arrowsmith Sue, The implications of Brexit for the law on public and utilities procurement, ACHILLES, at 12, available at https://www.achilles.com/images/locale/en-EN/buyer/pdf/UK/sue-arrowsmith-brexit-whitepaper.pdf.
    2. Bartels Lorand, The UK's Status in the WTO after Brexit, Sep. 23, 2016, available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=2841747.
    Bourgeois J.H.J., The Tokyo Round Agreements on Technical 3. Barriers and on Government Procurement, 19(5) CML REV. 5-33 (1982).
    4. Brink Lars, UK Brexit and WTO farm support limits, CAP REFORM.EU, July 13, 2016, http://capreform.eu/uk-brexit-and-wto-farm-support-limits/.
    5. Cremona Marise, A Policy of Bits and Pieces? The Common Commercial Policy after Nice, 4 CAMBRIDGE Y.B. EUR. LEGAL STUD. 61-91 (2001).
    6. CRAIG PAUL & GRÁINNE DE BÚRCA, EU LAW-TEXT, CASES, AND MATERIALS (5th ed. 2011).
    7. Dawar Kamala, Brexit and Government Procurement, UK Trade Policy Observatory Briefing Paper 8, Mar. 2017, at 2, available at http://blogs.sussex.ac.uk/uktpo/files/2016/11/Briefing-Paper-8.pdf.
    8. Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann, The EEC as a GATT Member-Legal Conflicts between GATT Law and European Community Law, in THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY AND GATT 23-71 (Norbert et al. eds., 1986).
    9. Everling Ulrich, EEC External Economic Relations, in THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY AND GATT 85-106 (Meinhard Hilf et al. eds., 1986).
    10. Gstöhl Sieglinde, The European Union's Trade Policy, 11 RITSUMEIKAN INTERNATIONAL AFFIRS 1-22 (2013)
    11. Hilf Meinhard, The ECJ's Opinion on the WTO-No Surprise, but Wise?, 6(2) EJIL 245-259 (1995).
    12. JACKSON JOHN H., WORLD TRADE AND THE LAW OF GATT (1th ed. 1969).
    13. Matthews Alan, WTO dimensions of a UK 'Brexit' and agriculture trade, CAP REFORM.EU, Jan. 5 , 2016, http://capreform.eu/wto-dimensions-of-a-uk-brexit-and-agricultural-trade/.
    14. Peter H. L. Van den Bossche, The EC and the Uruguay Round, in Implementing the Uruguay Round 23-102 (J. H. Jackson & A. O. Sykes eds., 1997).
    15. Ungphakorn Peter, 12 years on, EU’s certified WTO goods commitments now up to date to 2004, TRADE Β BLOG, https://tradebetablog.wordpress.com/2017/02/04/after-12-years-eu-25-goods-commitments/.
    16. Ungphakorn Peter, Brexit, agriculture, the WTO, and uncertainty, TRADE Β BLOG, https://tradebetablog.wordpress.com/2016/10/22/brexit-ag-wto-answers/.
    17. Ungphakorn Peter, The limits of ‘possibility’: Splitting the lamb-mutton quota for the UK and EU–27, TRADE Β BLOG, Jan. 6, 2017, https://tradebetablog.wordpress.com/2017/01/06/limits-of-possibility/.
    18. WTO, A HANDBOOK ON THE WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT SYSTEM 32 (1th ed. 2004).
    19. Woods Michael, Trade Law: Non-Violation Complaints-"Legitimate Expectations" & "Good Faith", SLAW, Jan. 8, 2016, http://www.slaw.ca/2016/01/08/trade-law-non-violation-complaints-legitimate-expectations-good-faith/.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    國際經營與貿易學系
    104351044
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0104351044
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[國際經營與貿易學系 ] 學位論文

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