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    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 哲學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/115997
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    題名: 萊維納斯思想中的意識概念
    The Concept of Consciousness in Levinas’ Thought
    作者: 劉澤佳
    Liu, Tze Chia
    貢獻者: 羅麗君
    劉澤佳
    Liu, Tze Chia
    關鍵詞: 萊維納斯
    胡賽爾
    海德格
    意識
    欲望
    意向性
    現象學
    存有
    倫理
    責任
    Levinas
    Husserl
    Heidegger
    Consciousness
    Desire
    Intentionality
    Phenomenology
    Being
    Ethic
    Responsibility
    日期: 2018
    上傳時間: 2018-03-02 11:00:57 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 萊維納斯是二十一世紀最重要的哲學家之一。他早期的哲學著作聚焦在現象學的知識論與方法論的問題上。由於曾師事海德格,所以他也展現了如何將胡賽爾的著作視為一種存有學。但這不意味著他的哲學是一種胡賽爾現象學或海德格存有學。如同海德格一般,他穿梭於現象學中,但以某種方式同時靠近、同時遠離海德格的學說。他堅持必須超克的不只是現象學,還有存有學,而這最徹底的層次便是倫理,或他所稱的 「異於存有」。但這種 「異於」如何可能?而萊維納斯的倫理與胡賽爾的現象學、海德格的存有學之間的關係又為何?意識概念便是其中的關鍵。而這也是這本博士論文的主要任務。
    這份探詢分三個部分,第一部分帶出現象學對自然哲學的批判,並處理萊維納斯對胡賽爾的理解與批判,例如意識不再是一個封閉的、不變的實體,而是具有朝向外在世界的可能。這朝向外在的可能,作為ㄧ種超越,來自意識結構本身。 「意識總是某物的意識」說明了意識本身的結構,這結構以能思-所思 (noesis-noema) 這樣的方式呈現。在這種運作方式,解讀為將外在化為內在的過程,所有被納入意識的事物都變成一種以 「現在」為優位的表象(representation)。
    第二部分說明何為萊維納斯所謂的 「意識」。而這個論述是從理論態度進入到實踐的態度開始,同時這也是萊維納斯與海德格的關係。在此我們將看到萊維納斯如何抗拒海德格的基礎存有學,並確立 「實顯」作為意識的定位。在定位之後才開始有欲望、營養與家園等將他者化為同一的活動。另在第二部分結尾說明萊維納斯將 「意識」一詞區分為兩的向度,意向性與非意向性,同時這也是存有學與倫理的的區別。
    第三部分著重在非意向性,亦即倫理的層次。在這裡說明如何從存有學層次的欲望、營養與家園轉變為責任、鄰近性與替代。非意向性意識所能建構的不是以自我為核心的帝國,而是以他人為優先的整個宇宙。在這之中,問題不在是存有或非存有,而是我的存有是否正當?我們可以發現,非意向性意識的功能不在於對反、摧毀意向性意識的功能,而只是打斷其安於現狀的安全感。正因不斷擾動、不斷質問,意識總是可以活躍的運作,而不只是陷入某個固定的迴圈。這種非意向性意識是強烈的,但它不是一種貪婪,或許可以說它是一種獻身的大愛。
    Emmanuel Levians, internationally renowed as one of the gtreat philosophers in the twentith century. In his early philosophical writings he focused on the epistemological and methodological problems of phenomenology. Having studied with Heidegger, he also showed how Husserl's work can be read as an ontology. But that does not means that his Philosophy is a sort of Husserlian phenomonology or Heideggerian ontology. Like Heidegger, he passed through phenomenology, but in a way simultaneously close and very foreign to that of Heidegger. An insistence on the necessity of overcoming not noly phenomenology but also ontology, and this most radical sphere is ethic, or what Levinas calls "byomd Being". But how can this beyond be possible, and what is the relation between Levinas's ethic with Husserlian phenomenology or heideggerian ontology? The Key point is the concept of consciousness. And this is the central task of this dissertion.
    This inquiry is divided into three parts. The first part brings out the phenomenology of natural philosophy and handles Levinas' understanding and criticism of Hussail. For example, consciousness is no longer a closed and unchanged entity, It is possible toward the outside world. This possibility, as a transcendence, comes from the structure of consciousness itself. "Consciousness is always the consciousness of something" illustrates the structure of consciousness itself, which is presented in such a way as noesis-noema. In this mode of operation, interpreted as the process of externalization into an internal process, all things that are incorporated into consciousness become a representation of the present.
    The second part explains what Levinas called "consciousness." And this discourse begins with the theoretical attitude into practical attitude, and this is also the relationship between Levinas and Heidegger. Here we will see how Levinas resisted Heidegger's fundamental ontology and established the "hypostasis" as the location of consciousness. Only after the positioning of consciousness, then, it begin the the movement that absorb the other to the Same by desire, nutrition and at home. At the end of the second section, another chapter shows Levinas's division of the word "consciousness" into two dimensions, intentionality and non-intentionality. At the same time, this is the difference between ontology and ethics.
    The third part focuses on non-intentionality, that is, ethical level. Here we show how we can shift the desire, nutrition and at home from the ontology leve to responsibility, proximity and substitution. The non-intentional consciousness can construct not the self-centered empire, but the entire universe, which is prioritized by others. Among them, the question is not to be or not to be, but is my existence right to be? We can see that the function of non-intentional awareness lies not in the function of opposing and destroying intentional awareness, but only in disrupting the security of the status quo. It is precisely because of constant disturbance, constant questioning, consciousness can always be active operation, not just fall into a fixed loop. This non-intentional awareness is strong, but it is not a kind of greed, perhaps it can be said that it is a devoted love.
    參考文獻: 萊維納斯原典(英文):

    01. Emmanuel Levinas , Totality and Infinity: An essay on Exteriority, Translated by Alphonso Lingis.: Duquesene University Press, 1969
    02. Emmanuel Levinas, Existence and Existents, Translated by Alphonso Lingis: Kluwer Academic Publisher, 1978.
    03. Emmanuel Levinas, Ethics and Infinity, Translated by Richard A. Cohen: Duquesne University Press, 1985.
    04. Emmanuel Levinas, Time and Other, Translated by Richard A. Cohen: Dequesne University Press, 1987.
    05. Emmanuel Levinas, Collected Philosophical Papers, Translated by Alphonso Lingis: Martinus Nijihoff Publishers, 1987.
    06. Emmanuel Levinas, The Levinas Reader, Edited by Seán Hand : Blackwell, Oxford, 1989.
    07. Emmanuel Levinas, Difficult Freedom, Translated by Seán Hand: the Athlone Press, 1990.
    08. Emmanuel Levinas, God, Death, and Time, Translated by Bettina Bergo: Stanford University Press, 1993.
    09. Emmanuel Levinas, Outside the Subject, Edited by Werner Hamacher & Davide E. Wellbery: Stanford, California, 1994.
    10. Emmanuel Levinas, Otherwise than Being or Beyond Essence, Translated by Alphonso Lingis: Duquesne University Press, 1997.
    11. Emmanuel Levinas, Discovering Existence with Husserl, Translated and Edited by Richard A. Cohen and Michael B. Smith: Northwestern University Press, 1998.
    12. Emmanuel Levinas, On Thinking-of-the-Other entre nous, Translated by Michael B. Smith and Barbara Harshav : Columbia University Press, 1998.
    13. Emmanuel Levinas, Is it Right to Be?: Interviews with Emmanuel Levinas, Edited by Jill Robbins: Stanford, California, 2001.
    14. Emmanuel Levinas, On Escape, Translated by Bettina Bergo: Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University, 2003.

    單篇文章:
    01. Emmanuel Levinas, ‘The Trace of the Other,’ Deconstruction in Context Literature and Philosophy, Edited by Mark C. Taylor, Chicoago: University of Chicago, 1986.
    02. Emmanuel Levinas, ‘Beyond Intentionality,’ Phenomenology reader, edited by Dermot Moran and Timothy Mooney : London : Routledge, New York, 2002.

    萊維納斯原典(法文):
    01. Emmanuel Lévinas, La théorie de l'intuition dans la phénoménologie de Husserl : Paris, F. Alcan, 1930.
    02. Emmanuel Lévinas, De l’existence à l’existant: Vrin, 1963.
    03. Emmanuel Lévinas, Totalité et infini: essai sur l’extériorité: Martinus Nijhoff, 1971.
    04. Emmanuel Lévinas, En découvrant l’existence avec Husserl et Heidegger: Librairie Philosophique, 1974.
    05. Emmanuel Lévinas, Autrement qu’ être ou au-delà de l’essence: Martinus Nijhoff, 1978.
    06. Emmanuel Lévinas, De l’ evasion: Fata Morgana, 1982.
    07. Emmanuel Lévinas, Ethique et infini: Librairie Arthème Fayard et Radio-france, 1982.
    08. Emmanuel Lévinas, Le Temps et l’autre: Presses Universitaires de France, 1983.
    09. Emmanuel Lévinas, Entre nous: essais sur le penser-á-l’autre: Éditions Grasset, 1991.
    10. Emmanuel Lévinas, Dieu, la mort et le temps : Éditions Grasset & fasquelle, Paris : Grasset, 1993.
    11. Emmanuel Lévinas, Éthique comme philosophie première: Éditions Payot & rivages, 1998.
    12. Emmanuel Lévinas, De dieu qui vient À l’idée: Paris : Vrin, 2004.
    13. Emmanuel Lévinas, Difficile liberté :Paris : Albin Michel, 2006.
    二手文獻
    西文部分:
    01. Colin Davis, Levinas an Introduction: Published in the United Stated of America, 1996.
    02. Dermot Moran , Introduction to Phenomenology: New York, London ;Routledge,c2000.
    03. Edith Wyschogrod, Emmanuel Levinas the Pproblem of Ethical Metaphysics: Martinus Nijhoff, 1974.
    04. Edited by Richard A. Cohen, Face to Face with Levinas: State University of New York press, 1986.
    05.Gérard Bensussan, Éthique et experience: La Phocide, Strasbourg, 2008.
    06. Jacques Derrida, Adieu to Emmanuel Levinas: Stanford University Press, 1997.
    07. Jacques Derrida, Writing and difference, trans. by Routledge & Kegan Paul: the University of Chicago press, 1981.
    08. Jacques Derrida, L'écriture et la différence, Paris : Éditions du Seuil, 1967.
    09. Martin Heidegger, Being and Time, trans. by Joan Stambaugh, State University of New York press, 1953.
    10. Michael L. Norgan, Discovering Levinas: Cambridge University press, 2007.
    11. Edited by Robert Bernasconi and David Wood, the Provocation of Levinas: University of Warwick Centre for Research in Philosophy and Literature, 1988.
    12. Simon Critchley, The Ethics of Deconstruction: Derrida and Levinas, Oxford, Blackwell, 1992.


    中文部分
    01.王恒著,《時間性:自身與他者》,南京,江蘇人民出版社,2007。
    02.利維納斯(Emmanuel Levinas)著,顧建光,張樂天譯,《生存在及生存者》,台北市,遠流,1990。
    03. 列維納斯(Emmanuel Levinas)著,吳蕙儀譯,《從存在到存在者》,北京,鳳凰,2006。
    04. 列維納斯(Emmanuel Levinas)著,余中先譯,《上帝、死亡和時間》,北京,生活‧讀書‧新知三聯書店,1997。
    05.列維納斯(Emmanuel Levinas)著,朱剛譯,《總體與無限: 論外在性》,北京,北京大學出版社,2016。
    06. 居伊‧珀蒂德芒熱著,劉成富等譯,《20世紀的哲學與哲學家》,北京,鳳凰,2007。
    07. 尚杰,《從胡賽爾到德里達》,南京,江蘇人民出版社,2008。
    08.胡賽爾,《純粹現象學通論—純粹現象學和現象學哲學的觀念(I)》,李幼蒸譯: 北京,中國人民大學,2004。
    09.高宣揚主編,《法蘭西思想評論》(第三卷),上海,同濟大學出版社,2008。
    10.孫向晨著,《面對他者:萊維納斯哲學思想研究》,上海,上海三聯,2008。
    11.港道隆著,張杰、李永華譯,《列維納斯—法外的思想》,石家庄市,河北教育出版社,2002。
    12.楊婉儀,《死˙生存˙倫理:從列維納斯觀點談超越與人性的超越》,台北,聯經,2017。
    13. 赫伯特‧施皮格伯格(Herbert Spiegelberg)著,王炳文、張金言譯《現象學運動》,北京,商務印書館,1995。
    14. 德希達(Jacques Derrida)著,張寧譯,《書寫與差異》,台北,麥田出版,2004。
    15. 德穆‧莫倫(Dermot Moran)著,蔡錚雲譯《現象學導論》,台北,桂冠,2005。
    16. 譚家哲,《形上史論》,台北,唐山,2006。

    單篇論文:
    01. 列維納斯(Emmanuel Levinas)著,胡繼華譯,〈意義與方現感〉,《生產. 第五輯,德勒茲機器》,汪民安主編,桂林,廣西師範大學,2008。
    02. 列維納斯(Emmanuel Levinas)著,倪梁康主編,〈存有論是基礎的?〉《面對實事本身》,北京,東方出版,2000。
    03列維納斯(Emmanuel Levinas)著,包利民編選,〈倫理學作為第一哲學〉《西方哲學基礎文獻選讀》,杭州,浙江大學出版社,2007。
    期刊論文及論文集:
    01. 賴俊雄訪談與紀錄,劉玉雯譯,〈為列維納斯答辯:理察‧柯恩訪談〉,《中外文學》36卷第四期,民96年12月。

    02.楊大春主編,《列維納斯的世紀或他者的命運:”杭州列維納斯國際學術研討會”論文集》,北京:中國人民大學,2008。
    描述: 博士
    國立政治大學
    哲學系
    98154504
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0981545041
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[哲學系] 學位論文

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