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    題名: 土耳其的反美主義:柔性平衡論之解析
    Anti-Americanism in Turkey : The Application of ";Soft Balancing"
    作者: 李佩儒
    Lee, Pei Ru
    貢獻者: 盧業中
    Lu, Yeh Chung
    李佩儒
    Lee, Pei Ru
    關鍵詞: 土耳其
    反美主義
    柔性平衡
    土耳其-美國關係
    Turkey
    Anti-Americanism
    Soft balancing
    Turkish-U.S. relations
    日期: 2018
    上傳時間: 2018-03-02 11:59:59 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 土耳其於1952年透過北大西洋公約組織的框架與美國建立同盟關係,在這層合作關係下,土耳其內部卻存在著非常濃厚的反美主義。本研究的目的之一即了解此合作關係下為何存在反美主義情形。研究採用文獻分析法,同時蒐集美國、土耳其智庫民意研究數據,描述土耳其反美主義之變動情形,與了解土耳其對美國之認知。

    本研究首先討論何謂反美主義與柔性平衡,並回顧冷戰至歐巴馬時期的土耳其-美國雙邊關係。研究發現土耳其國內在小布希與歐巴馬時期中仍有強烈反美主義之存在,且土耳其國內對威脅的認知與美國不同。本文選用伊拉克戰爭與聯合國安全理事會1929號決議為個案,說明土耳其在反美情緒下之柔性平衡。在國內層次擁有反美主義的狀態下,土國政治菁英需要回應民意需求,因此政府有誘因選擇在國際層次上柔性平衡美國,作為國內層次上民意壓力之宣洩口。將來國際間中等國家對美國的柔性平衡是否增加,甚至形成一集團平衡美國,為未來研究可關注的焦點。
    U.S.-Turkey alliance started from 1952 through the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. With this cooperative relationship, however, the existence of Anti-Americanism atmosphere in Turkey was high. One of the research purpose of this study was to realize how this partnership and Anti-American sentiment could coexist. In order to understand this condition, Document Analysis has been used to this study. Also, American and Turkish think-tanks’ public opinion researches served as a description to describe changes in Turkish Anti-Americanism and an illustration to illustrate the perceptions of Turkey.

    This study first discusses what are “Anti-Americanism” and “Soft Balancing”. It then reviews Turkish-American relations from the Cold War to Obama period. This study finds that in Bush and Obama years, strong Anti-American sentiment still existed in Turkey. Moreover, the two countries have very different perceptions of external threats. The Iraq War and United Nations Security Council Resolution No.1929 are case studies in this thesis. It elaborates how Turkey “soft balance” United States in the international level while strong Anti-American sentiments were intense in domestic level. The middle powers’ soft balancing strategies or the emergence of a potential Anti-U.S. alliance could be research hotspots to focus on in the future.
    參考文獻: 一、中文部份
    (一)期刊文章
    甘逸驊,「歐盟與美國的權力關係:柔性平衡的適用性」,問題與研究,第47卷第2期(2009),頁1~24。
    盧倩儀,「影響土耳其政府與境內庫德族關係之國際因素」,問題與研究,第49卷第2期(2011),頁39~64。
    二、英文部份
    (一)專書(含專書論文)
    Brooks, Stephen G. and William C. Wohlforth. World Out of Balance: International Relations and the challenge of American Primacy (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2008).
    Datta, Monti Narayan. Anti-Americanism and the Rise of World Opinion: Consequences for the US National Interest (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014).
    Dunne, Tim, Milja Kurki and Steve Smith. International Relations Theories Discipline and Diversity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).
    Ercan, Pinar Gozen. Turkish Foreign Policy: International Relations, Legality And Global Reach (Ankara: Springer International Publishing, 2017).
    Hale, William and Ergun Ozbudun. Islamism, Democracy and Liberalism in Turkey The Case of the AKP (Abingdon: Routledge).
    Hale, William. Turkish Foreign Policy since 1774 (Portland: Frank Cass, 2013).
    Harris, George S. Trouble alliance: Turkish-American problems in historical perspective, 1945-1971 (Stanford: AEI-Hoover policy studies, 1972).
    Higgott, Richard and Ivona Malbasic. The Political Consequences of Anti-Americanism (New York: Routledge, 2008).
    Hook, Steven W. and John Spanier. American Foreign Policy since World War II (Washington D.C.: CQ Press, 2010).
    Hudson, Valerie M. Foreign Policy Analysis Classic and Contemporary Theory (Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2007).
    Katzenstein, Peter J. and Reobert O. Keohane. Anti-Americanism In World Politics (New York: Cornell University Press, 2007).
    Lutz, Catherine. The Bases of Empire: The Global Struggle against U.S. Military Posts (New York: New York University Press, 2009).
    O’Connor, Brendon and Martin Griffiths. The Rise of anti-Americanism (New York: Routledge, 2006).
    Paul, T. V. James J. Wirtz, and Michel Fortmann, Balance of Power Theory and Practice in the 21st Century (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004).
    Rubinstein, Alvin Z. and Donald E. Smith. Anti-Americanism in the Third World: Implications for the U.S. Foreign Policy (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1985).
    Rubinstein, Alvin Z. and Donald E. Smith. Anti-Americanism in the Third World (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1985).
    Sokullu, Ebru Canan. Debating Security in Turkey Challenges and Changes in the Twenty First Century (Plymouth: Lexington Books, 2013).
    Walt, Stephen M. Taming American Power (New York: Cornell University Press, 2005).
    Waltz, Kenneth N. Theory of International Politics (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979).
    (二)期刊文章
    Altunis, Meliha B. & Lenore G. Martin. “Making Sense of Turkish Foreign Policy in the Middle East under AKP,” Turkish Studies, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 569~587.
    Art, Robert J. “Striking the Balance,” International Security, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 177~185.
    Athanassopoulou, Ekavi. “American-Turkish relations since the end of the Cold War,” Middle East Policy, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 144~164.
    Aydın, Mustafa. “Reconstructing Turkish American Relations: Divergences versus Convergences,” New Perspectives on Turkey, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 125~146.
    Brooks, Stephen G. and William C. Wohlforth. “Hard Times for Soft Balancing,” International Security, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 72~108.
    Cakmak, Cenap and Gokhan Guneysu. “Turkish-American Relations during Obama Era: Unfulfilled Expectations,” Turkish Studies, Vol.14, No.2, pp. 193~211.
    Cook, Steven A. and Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall. “Generating Momentum for a New Era in U.S.-Turkey Relations,” Council on Foreign Relations Press, No. 15, pp. 1~37.
    Datta, Monti Narayan. “The Decline of American Soft Power in the United Nations,” International Studies Perspectives, Vol. 10, No.3, pp. 265~284.
    Erhan, Çağrı and Efe Sıvış. “Determinants of Turkish-American Relations and Prospects for the Future,” Insight Turkey, Vol.19, No.1, pp. 89~115.
    Friedman, Max Paul and Tom Long. “Soft Balancing in the Americas Latin American Opposition to U.S. Intervention 1898-1936,” International Security, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 120~156.
    Guilfoyle, Douglas. “The Mavi Marmara Incident and Blockade in Armed Conflict,” The British Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 81, No. 1, pp. 171~223.
    Güney, Aylin. “Anti-Americanism in Turkey: Past and Present,” Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 471~487.
    Ilgit, Asli and Binnur Ozkececi-Taner. “Turkey at the United NationsSecurity Council: ‘Rhythmic Diplomacy’ and a Quest for Global Influence,” Mediterranean Politics, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 183~202.
    Lieber, Keir A. and Gerard Alexander. “Waiting for Balancing Why the World Is Not Pushing Back,” International Security, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 109~139.
    Litsas, Spyridon N. “Bandwagoning for profit and Turkey: alliance formations and volatility in the Middle East,” Israel Affairs, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 125~139.
    Pape, Robert A. “Soft Balancing against the United States,” International Security, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 7~45.
    Park, Bill. “Turkey's isolated stance: an ally no more, or just the usual turbulence?,” International Affairs, Vol. 91, No. 3, pp. 581~600.
    Paul, T.V. “Soft Balancing in the Age of U.S. Primacy,” International Security, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 46~71.
    Putnam, Robert D. “Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: the Logic of Two-Level Games,” International Organization, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 427~460.
    Salmoni, Barak A. “Strategic Partners or Estranged Allies: Turkey, the United States, and Operation Iraqi Freedom,” Strategic Insights, Vol. 2, No. 7, pp. 5~13.
    Sayarı, Sabri. “Turmoil in the Middle East and Turkish-American Relations,” Turkish Policy, Vol.14, No.1, pp. 113~122.
    Stein, Aaron. “Resetting U.S.-Turkish Relations: Charting a New Way Forward,” Journal of Strategic Security, Vol. 4, No.1, pp. 1~18.
    Taspinar, Omer. “The End of the Turkish Model,” Survival, Vol. 56, No. 2, pp. 49~64.
    Uslu, Nasuh Metin Toprak, Ibrahim Dalmis and Ertan Aydin. “Turkish public opinion toward the United States in the context of the Iraq question,” Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 75~107.
    Walt, Stephen M. “Alliance Formation and the Balance of World Power,” International Security, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 3~43.
    Yesiltas, Murat. “Soft Balancing in Turkish Foreign Policy: The Case of The 2003 Iraq War,” Perceptions, Vol. 14, No.1, pp. 25~51.
    (三)新聞資料
    “Anti-Americanism in Turkey,” Hurriyet, <http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/anti-americanism-in-turkey.aspx?pageID=438&n=anti-americanism-in-turkey-2005-02-17>, (February 17, 2005).
    “Beyond the Valley of the Wolves,” Der Spiegel, <http://www.spiegel.de/international/controversy-over-turkish-movie-beyond-the-valley-of-the-wolves-a-401565.html>, (Febuary 22, 2006).
    “Erdoğan v the Gülenists: from political allies to Turkey's bitter rivals,” The Guardian, <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/19/thousands-detained-as-turkey-vows-to-smoke-out-gulen-supporters>, (July 19, 2016).
    “George Bush addresses the NATO summit in Turkey,” The Guardian, <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/jun/29/eu.nato1>, (June 29, 2004).
    “Growing Mistrust Between U.S. and Turkey Is Played Out in Public,” The New York Times, <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/24/world/europe/growing-mistrust-between-us-and-turkey-is-played-out-in-public.html>, (December 23, 2013).
    “PYD not terrorist under US law, Turkey should provide them support: Washington,” Hürriyet Daily News, <http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/pyd-not-terrorist-under-us-law-turkey-should-provide-them-support-state-department.aspx?pageID=238&nid=73259>, (October 21, 2014).
    “Rice smooths relations in Turkey,” BBC, <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4240121.stm>, (February 6, 2005).
    “Threats and Responses: Ankara; Turkish Deputies Refuse to Accept American Troops,” The New York Times, <http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/02/world/threats-and-responses-ankara-turkish-deputies-refuse-to-accept-american-troops.html?mcubz=3>, (March 2, 2003).
    “Transcript: Obama addresses U.N. General Assembly,” CNN, < http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/09/23/obama.transcript/index.html>, (September 23, 2009).
    “Turkey calls on US not to launch attack on Iraq,” The Irish Times, < https://www.irishtimes.com/news/turkey-calls-on-us-not-to-launch-attack-on-iraq-1.416754> (March 15, 2002)
    “Turkey opposes strike against Iraq,” BBC, <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2134737.stm> (July 17, 2002)
    “Turkey recalls ambassador over genocide resolution,” CNN, <http://edition.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/10/11/us.turkey.armenians/index.html?iref=topnews>, (October 12, 2007).
    “Turkey recalls US ambassador over Armenia genocide resolution,” The Guardian, <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/mar/05/turkey-us-ambassador-armenia> (March 5, 2010).
    “Turkey says will not end gas links with Iran,” Reuters, <https://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-iran/turkey-says-will-not-end-gas-links-with-iran-idUSL2022038220070920>, (September 20, 2007).
    “Turkey, US in row over Erdoğan’s remarks on Israel,” Hurriyet News, <http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-us-in-row-over-erdogans-remarks-on-israel--69389>, (July 20,2014).
    “Turkey’s Erdogan calls on U.S. to extradite rival Gulen,” Reuters, < http://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-erdogan/turkeys-erdogan-calls-on-u-s-to-extradite-rival-gulen-idUSBREA3S0A120140429>, (April 29, 2014).
    “Turkish foreign minister opposes U.N. sanctions on Iran,” Washington Post, < http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/04/14/AR2010041403818.html>, (April 14, 2010).
    “Turks protest at Cheney visit,” Reuters, <http://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-turkey-cheney-protests/turks-protest-at-cheney-visit-idUKL243634020080324>, (March 24, 2008).
    “U.S. concerned at Turkey shift: Gates,” Reuters, <https://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-israel-usa/u-s-concerned-at-turkey-shift-gates-idUSTRE6581I220100609?type=politicsNews>, (June 9, 2010).
    “US arrest of soldiers infuriates Turkey,” The Guardian, <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/jul/08/turkey.michaelhoward>, (July 8, 2003)
    “US concerns over Turkey missile proposal,” Al Jazeera, <http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2013/10/24/us-concerned-overturkishmissilesystempurchase.html> (October 24, 2013).
    “US drops weapons and ammunition to help Kurdish fighters in Kobani,” The Guardian, <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/20/turkey-iraqi-kurds-kobani-isis-fighters-us-air-drops-arms>, (October 20, 2014)
    “US-supplied PYD weapons found at PKK hideouts in northern Iraq,” Daily Sabah, <http://www.dailysabah.com/politics/2015/10/16/us-supplied-pyd-weapons-found-at-pkk-hideouts-in-northern-iraq>, (October 16, 2015).
    (四)官方文獻
    “Invigorating the U.S.-Turkey Strategic Partnership,” U.S. Department of State, <https://2001-2009.state.gov/p/eur/rls/rm/106232.htm>, (June 24, 2008).
    “Iran’s Nuclear Program: Tehran’s Compliance with International Obligations,” Congressional Research Service, p.1, <https://fas.org/sgp/crs/nuke/R40094.pdf> (September 26, 2016).
    “Israel’s Blockade of Gaza, the Mavi Marmara Incident, and Its Aftermath,” Congressional Research Service, pp. 9~15, <https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41275.pdf> (June 23, 2010).
    “Operation Enduring Freedom: Foreign Pledges of Military & Intelligence Support,” CRS Report for Congress, < https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1742/m1/1/high_res_d/RL31152_2001Oct17.pdf > (October 17, 2001).
    “President Bush Meets with President Gul of Turkey,” The White House, <https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2008/01/20080108-3.html>, (January 8, 2008).
    “President Welcomes Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan to the White House,” The White House, < https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2005/06/20050608-1.html>, (June 8, 2005).
    “Remarks by President Bush and Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan in Photo Opportunity,” U.S. Department of State, <https://2001-2009.state.gov/p/eur/rls/rm/28582.htm> (January 28, 2004).
    “Remarks by President Obama and Prime Minister Erdogan of Turkey after meeting,” The White House, <https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/realitycheck/the-press-office/remarks-president-obama-and-prime-minister-erdogan-turkey-after-meeting>, (December 07, 2009).
    “Remarks Of President Barack Obama At Student Roundtable In Istanbul,” The White House, <https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-barack-obama-student-roundtable-istanbul> (April 7, 2009).
    “Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations In Brief,” Congressional Research Service, pp. 8~10, <http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/5666950d4.pdf> (November 13, 2015).
    “Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations In Brief,” Congressional Research Service, pp. 6~7 < https://www.everycrsreport.com/files/20160826_R44000_81072458e0dc812219a81d481c49186464ebd6de.pdf> (August 26, 2016).
    “Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations,” Congressional Research Service, pp. 34~35, <https://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R41368.pdf> (August 26, 2016).
    “Turkey: Selected Foreign Policy Issues and U.S. Views,” Congressional Research Service, pp. 2~10, <www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA486490> (June 23, 2010).
    “Turkey: Selected Foreign Policy Issues and U.S. Views,” Congressional Research Service, pp. 31~35, <https://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL34642.pdf>, (November 28, 2010).
    (五)網路文章
    “Henry Kissinger Reminds Us Why Realism Matters,” TIMES, <http://time.com/3275385/henry-kissinger/>, (September 6, 2014).
    Pitcairn, Daniel “Public Opinion and Soft Balancing within the Transatlantic Alliance,” The Yale Review of International Studies, <http://yris.yira.org/essays/830>, (November 1, 2012).
    三、土文部份
    (一)智庫研究報告
    “Kamuoyu ve Türk Dış Politikası anketi,” Ankara Üniversitesi Avrupa Toplulukları Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi, < http://www.academia.edu/1435581/Kamuoyu_Ve_T%C3%BCrk_D%C4%B1%C5%9F_Politikas%C4%B1_Anketi_Ocak_2010>, (Ocak 2010)
    “USAK Dış Politika Algılama Anketi,” Uluslararası Stratejik Araştırmalar Kurumu Araştırması, <http://www.usak.org.tr/dosyalar/TDP Anket4_TFP.pdf >, (Ağustos 2009).
    (二)新聞資料
    “Bush’tan Ecevit’e: Yanınızdayız,” Milliyet Haber, <http://www.milliyet.com.tr/2002/01/17/guncel/agun.html> (Ocak 17, 2002).
    “Gül: Tüm demokratik yollar denenmeli,” Hürriyet Haber, <http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gul-tum-demokratik-yollar-denenmeli-119835>, (Ocak 3,2003)
    “İsrail'e protesto çığı gibi,” Radikal, <http://www.radikal.com.tr/turkiye/israile-protesto-cigi-gibi-999816/>, (May 31, 2010).
    “Kafamıza vurdular su bile vermediler,” Gazetevatan, <http://www.gazetevatan.com/kafamiza-vurdular-su-bile-vermediler-11522-gundem/ >, (Temmuz 8, 2003).
    四、網路資源
    (一)官方網站
    土耳其外交部
    http://www.mfa.gov.tr/
    土耳其大國民議會
    https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/
    北約網頁
    http://www.nato.int/cps/en/
    美國國務院官網
    https://www.state.gov/
    聯合國官網
    http://www.un.org/en/
    (二)民間機構網站
    Gallup
    http://news.gallup.com/
    GlobeScan
    https://globescan.com/
    PEW Research Center
    http://www.pewglobal.org/
    The Washington Institute
    http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/
    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    外交學系
    103253014
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1032530141
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[外交學系] 學位論文

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