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    Title: 齋醮壇場與儀式變遷:以道教朝科為中心的討論
    The Altars of Daoist Ritual and Ritual Change: An Analysis of Daoist Audience Rites
    Authors: 張超然
    Chang, Chao-Jan
    Keywords: 道教;齋醮;壇場;朝科;道場
    Daoism;fasting ritual;daoist altar;offering ritual;audience rites
    Date: 2014-12
    Issue Date: 2018-03-16 17:05:08 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 作為道教儀式主流的齋醮科儀,乃由兩種不同類型的儀式組合而成。無論是齋儀或醮儀,因其儀式性質與功能差異,以及不同道派的神學預設,而規劃有不同象徵意義的儀式空間。雖如此,有時為了權宜方便,行儀道士也可能在不甚合宜的空間場域演行科儀,因而產生儀式行為與壇場空間之間多有扞格的情形。本文立基於過去的研究成果,旨在考察靜室、齋壇與醮壇(道場)等不同儀式空間的性質與象徵,以及唐宋以降齋醮壇場的變遷情形,除此之外,也進一步探究儀式空間的變化對於儀式變遷可能造成的影響。簡單來說,不同道教儀式類型所使用的空間性質均不相同。早期天師道「靜室」像是傳送請願文書的郵驛傳舍,南朝以降的靈寶齋壇則以立體形制象徵宇宙,至於醮壇則是人間祭壇,用以延降諸神,接受享祭。然而,這些空間卻可能因為儀式變遷或者不同儀式類型的相互結合,而有所增衍或複合。但就長遠的發展趨勢來看,齋壇與醮壇之間卻是存在互用、分立,最終由醮壇取代了齋壇。而空間的變化也在某些方面促成了儀式變遷,諸如為了讓不同類型的儀式能夠在同一空間演行,儀式架構逐漸同化;而在取代立體齋壇之後,由於醮壇仍須擔負登壇行道的功能,因此化符、步罡、存思等複合性昇天技法便被挪作入戶功訣,彌補平面壇式的不足,以之表現平面空間的多層次性。總之,本文擬以道教朝科作為例子,說明齋醮壇場與儀式變遷之間的複雜互動與發展趨勢。
    The fasting (zhai) and offering (jiao) rituals, which are the most common of all Daoist liturgies, are composed of two different parts. Each of these two kinds of rituals have distinct qualities and functions, as well as doctrinal distinctions, thus producing two different symbols for liturgical space. In practice, however, Daoist ritual requires some priests to implement these two rituals in the wrong places; this can often result in conflicting and contradictory meanings. This paper builds upon previous research to ascertain how these conflicting uses of Daoist ritual space changed over time in the oratories, altars, and larger ritual arenas of the Tang and Song dynasties. It further explores how changes in liturgical space correlate with alterations of rituals themselves. Simply put, the various Daoist rituals will be mapped on and implemented differently in ritual space. The oratory of early Celestial Masters, for instance, used their chambers as kinds of post stations form which they could submit their documents to the heavens. In the Six Dynasties period, the zhai altars were designed as a microcosm of the universe, while the jiao altars were constructed from commonplace altars from which priests made contact with Daoist gods. But these spaces underwent several changes as different kinds of rituals were altered, augmented, and combined. As a result of this intermingling, the altar spaces for zhai and jiao rituals gradually became used in conjunction with one another; eventually the jiao altar replaced the zhai entirely. The changes in the Daoist liturgical space also resulted in the alterations of ritual performance; as disparate rites appeared together, the ritual infrastructure gradually transformed. And after the zhai altar disappeared, many of rituals concerning heavenly communication such as burning talismans, pacing the Dipper, and meditation rituals were remade as orally transmitted instructions. Since the flat ritual space was inadequate to express all of these rituals, we find that the Daoist altar was transformed into a multi-functional space. This article uses the audience rites of Daoist ritual as an example to demonstrate the complexity and contours of this spatial transmutation.
    Relation: 華人宗教研究, 4, 1-41
    Data Type: article
    DOI 連結: http://dx.doi.org/10.6720/SCR.201412_(4).0001
    DOI: 10.6720/SCR.201412_(4).0001
    Appears in Collections:[華人宗教研究] 期刊論文

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