Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
The Altars of Daoist Ritual and Ritual Change: An Analysis of Daoist Audience Rites
Daoism;fasting ritual;daoist altar;offering ritual;audience rites
|Issue Date: ||2018-03-16 17:05:08 (UTC+8)|
The fasting (zhai) and offering (jiao) rituals, which are the most common of all Daoist liturgies, are composed of two different parts. Each of these two kinds of rituals have distinct qualities and functions, as well as doctrinal distinctions, thus producing two different symbols for liturgical space. In practice, however, Daoist ritual requires some priests to implement these two rituals in the wrong places; this can often result in conflicting and contradictory meanings. This paper builds upon previous research to ascertain how these conflicting uses of Daoist ritual space changed over time in the oratories, altars, and larger ritual arenas of the Tang and Song dynasties. It further explores how changes in liturgical space correlate with alterations of rituals themselves. Simply put, the various Daoist rituals will be mapped on and implemented differently in ritual space. The oratory of early Celestial Masters, for instance, used their chambers as kinds of post stations form which they could submit their documents to the heavens. In the Six Dynasties period, the zhai altars were designed as a microcosm of the universe, while the jiao altars were constructed from commonplace altars from which priests made contact with Daoist gods. But these spaces underwent several changes as different kinds of rituals were altered, augmented, and combined. As a result of this intermingling, the altar spaces for zhai and jiao rituals gradually became used in conjunction with one another; eventually the jiao altar replaced the zhai entirely. The changes in the Daoist liturgical space also resulted in the alterations of ritual performance; as disparate rites appeared together, the ritual infrastructure gradually transformed. And after the zhai altar disappeared, many of rituals concerning heavenly communication such as burning talismans, pacing the Dipper, and meditation rituals were remade as orally transmitted instructions. Since the flat ritual space was inadequate to express all of these rituals, we find that the Daoist altar was transformed into a multi-functional space. This article uses the audience rites of Daoist ritual as an example to demonstrate the complexity and contours of this spatial transmutation.
|Relation: ||華人宗教研究, 4, 1-41|
|Data Type: ||article|
|DOI 連結: ||http://dx.doi.org/10.6720/SCR.201412_(4).0001|
|Appears in Collections:||[華人宗教研究] 期刊論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.