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    Title: Incarnation (huashen 化身) and "Succession of the Way" (daotong 道統): The Unification of the Three Teachings and Issues of Ancestral Master Origin in Sectarian Religion
    化身與道統:教派宗教中祖師源流的三教合一問題
    Authors: 李豐楙
    Lee, Fong-Mao
    Keywords: 一貫道;道統寶鑑;道統;化身;三教合一
    Way of Pervading Unity (Yiguan dao 一貫道);Precious Reflections of the Succession of the Way (daotong baojian 道統寶鑑);succession of the way (daotong 道統);incarnation (huashen 化身);unification of the three teachings (sanjiao heyi 三教合一)
    Date: 2015-07
    Issue Date: 2018-03-19 13:58:54 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 目前教派宗教的研究漸成氣候,累積成果多為歷史學取向,但像「祖師源流」一類論題,既可從歷史考辨其事蹟,也應從宗教學關注譜系背後存在的複雜問題。教派宗教的道統譜系表下,隱藏許多豐富而有待解讀的時代訊息,亟宜從宗教學的神話語言視角細加詮釋:諸如採取三個階段的三教編排,卻又有畸輕畸重的明顯現象。敘述一貫道道脈源流的《道統寶鑑》,其道統縱橫數千年,歷經兩大文明,而真正鑑照的則是兩、三百年來華人宗教的生存之道,既要面對王朝的政治禁制,防範外部既成宗教的正統之爭,也需面臨教派內部的分裂焦慮。在這種困境中採取兼融的教義,就表現於編組祖師以立統緒,將不同宗教的成果匯歸於一,而形成聯繫歷代祖師所成的正統化源流表,既設法打破三大宗教間祖師既獨立也對立的格局,也要確立彼此可以共享的觀念,因而「化身」與「道統」就成為匯通三教的核心,其間的銜接並非歷史時間的先後問題,而是三種宗教象徵並存且相通的表現。從「化身與道統」在各階段分別標誌的祖師群像的模式化敘述可考察其如何吸收傳統宗教的文化資源,再據以改造為自己的神道語言。故以宗教學詮釋道統的形成,探討其宗教語言與神話創造的運用,置於教派宗教史的脈絡中加以詮釋,可知其形成與衍變均銘刻著不斷的教難經驗。
    At present, research on sectarian religion has been gradually improving and much of the accumulated results of this research tends toward historical studies. However, the kinds of questions similar to "ancestral master origin" (zushi yuanliu 祖師源流), matters which may be examined from a historical perspective, should also, from a religious perspective, be concerned with complicated questions concerning lineages. The exterior of sectarian religion daotong lineages conceals a great deal of rich historical information still to be discerned that is in urgent need of being carefully expounded upon from a mythological language perspective of religious studies; taking for example the three teachings’ vilification of the three stages, there is an obvious phenomenon of inconsistency. Recounting the Precious Reflections of the Succession of the Way (Daotong baojian 道統寶鑑), the origin of core principles of the Way of Pervading Unity (Yiguan dao 一貫道), we find that its daotong lineage traverses a thousand years. The lineage endured two great cultures and genuinely reflects the past two to three hundred years of existing teachings in Chinese religion. Since the authors had to confront the political prohibitions of the imperial court, the text had to guard against contentions of orthodoxy from already established religions and face divisive anxieties concerning internal factions. In this kind of predicament, its authors adopted and fused religious doctrines that were then displayed in the organization of ancestral masters so as to establish an institution. Here, the achievements of different religions converge into one and form an orthodox list of origin and development comprised of an integrated line of successive generations of ancestral masters. The authors contrived a way to break the independent and opposing ancestral master structure of the three teachings and wanted to establish concepts that could be mutually shared. Consequently, incarnation and "succession of the way" (daotong 道統) became the core of merging the three teachings; yet, the period of this combination is not a question of precedence in temperal history, but rather a manifestation of the three teachings’ symbols coexisting and communicating with one another. From the concepts of incarnation and daotong in each stage of division in the routinized narrative of ancestral master groups and their symbols, we can observe how sects assimilate the cultural resources of traditional religion, and then, on the basis of this, transform their own language of sacred lineage. Therefore, through the formation of a religious studies’ exposition of daotong, we can explore the application of religious language and creation myth and place them in the context of the history of sectarion religion to interpret them. We come to understand that their formation and evolution have all been inscribed with the continuous experience of persecution.
    Relation: 華人宗教研究, 5, 37-76
    Data Type: article
    DOI 連結: http://dx.doi.org/10.6720/SCR.201507_(5).0002
    DOI: 10.6720/SCR.201507_(5).0002
    Appears in Collections:[華人宗教研究] 期刊論文

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