透過老屋健檢檢視居住安全，有助於居民選擇合適的療法防止建物持續劣化。2016 年2月6 日高雄美濃地震引發社會對於建物安全的關注。2013 年臺北市以人體健康檢查概念首創老屋健檢計畫，健檢對居民後續行動的影響及其政策成效乃本文焦點。本文以2013 和2014年臺北市老屋健檢申請案件及屋齡20 年以上之公寓大廈社區為調查樣本，從個體面探討老屋健檢對居民改善環境意願的影響以及健檢與否導致後續行為之機率差異，並就總體面估計政策之成本效益。研究結果顯示，曾參與健檢者有意改善環境之機率較高，居民在建物設備及外牆安全健檢結果越差時，將增加改造環境的可能性；就總體面來說，現行政策投入少量成本即獲得可觀效益，顯示老屋健檢政策應持續執行。 Old buildings must be inspected to ensure the safety of residents and to select adequate methods of preventing building deterioration.The many deaths caused by the 0206 earthquake have aroused widespread social concern about building safety. In 2013, an old building inspection plan was established by the Taipei City government based on the concept of health examination. Therefore, this study evaluated the effectiveness of the policy and its effect on the subsequent actions of relevant residents. The survey targeted old building inspection application cases in 2013 and 2014 as well as ≥20 years old apartment buildings in Taipei City. From the perspective of individual residents, this study investigated how inspection of old buildings affected the willingness of residents to improve their living environment as well as the likelihood that they engaged in such action. The policy effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the program were also estimated from a comprehensive perspective.The analysis results showed that residents who had participated in the examination were likely to be interested in improving their living environment. Poor outcomes of building facility and outer wall examination also increased the likelihood of the residents to transform their living environment. From a comprehensive perspective, the current policy should be continued because it provides substantial benefits with little investment.