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    題名: 組織文化、組織社會化與組織承諾對離職意圖,以人員類別為調節變項─以轉型後的臺灣港務股份有限公司為例
    Exploring the Relationship among Organizational Culture, Organizational Socialization, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention: Taking Personnel Category as Moderator Variable- The Empirical Study of Taiwan International Ports Corporation, LTD
    作者: 劉容辰
    Liou, Rong Chen
    貢獻者: 傅凱若
    劉容辰
    Liou, Rong Chen
    關鍵詞: 組織文化
    組織社會化
    組織承諾
    離職意圖
    新舊人員
    Organizational culture
    Organizational socialization
    Organizational commitment
    Turnover intention
    Newcomers and senior staff
    日期: 2018
    上傳時間: 2018-06-12 18:04:07 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 全球化的衝擊下,我國港埠發展必須透過改變以開創新的契機迎接挑戰。因此,原為公務機關的港務局,於2012年3月經「政企分離」改制為「臺灣港務股份有限公司(TIPC)」,然而,目前港務公司雖已改制,但內部成員仍處新舊人員交替階段,具公務員身分之繼續任用人員(舊人)陸續退休,但新進從業人員(新人)的養成仍需時間,此造成組織人力老化與斷層的嚴重問題。如何有效讓舊人傳承經驗給新人,並培養中間幹部與迅速補充人力,建立資源統合機制為臺灣港務公司需正視的課題。轉型之後,為鞏固公司順利運作與發展,新舊成員們所認知的組織文化型態、組織社會化情形、組織承諾程度,如何影響離職意圖實有探討必要。故本研究實證此四個研究變項的關係,提供臺灣港務公司和相關管理階層,作為落實人力資源管理與預防員工離職行為之參考。
    本研究選定臺灣港務公司之總公司及基隆、臺中、高雄、花蓮四個分公司人員為研究母體,共計回收280份有效問卷,並以SPSS 21與AMOS 21統計軟體針對問卷資料進行「描述性統計、差異性分析、信度與效度、積差相關、驗證性因素分析與多元階層迴歸」等分析方法,以瞭解研究變項彼此關聯與假設驗證,研究結果有以下發現:

    一、組織社會化無法有效預測離職意圖。在三種不同型態組織文化與離職意圖上,僅創新型文化有顯著效果,但影響方向相較於先前研究有關組織文化在離職意圖的結果相反。組織承諾與離職意圖達負向顯著影響效果。最後,新人離職意圖確實較舊人高。
    二、在個別的調節作用探討上,新、舊人員在組織社會化、官僚型文化、創新型文化、支持型文化與離職意圖的關係中皆有干擾效果;僅組織承諾對離職意圖無調節效果。

    從實證結果本研究得到三項結論,首先,公司成員對臺灣港務公司至今究竟較偏向何種型態的組織文化樣貌亦有不同於以往相關研究之看法,從中公司可藉此反思應如何持續強化或加深成員們對該組織的總體印象。其次,整體而言,公司成員對於公司仍相當具有組織承諾感,亦即當成員愈認同該組織的價值觀、經營模式與建立同仁間感情關係等措施,則愈不易產生離開公司的念頭,並會期望自己能長期留任於公司盡己所能地貢獻與服務。第三,新人無論在組織社會化、以制度規範為基礎的文化、創新型文化、支持型文化等面向,其離職意圖皆低於舊人。
    最後,本研究建議臺灣港務公司應重視新、舊人的離職意圖問題,考量組織文化、組織社會化與組織承諾的重要影響。兩類不同身分成員對離職意圖的差異,針對不同的組織文化型態、組織社會化策略與方案,思考如何提升成員的組織承諾,並研擬相關策略規劃與制定,以使更臻完備。
    Due to the impact of globalization, the development of shipping and transportation management in Taiwan’ is necessary to change to create new opportunities. Therefore, the Port Authority was restructuring by separating the division of administration and enterprise operations and transformed into Taiwan International Ports Corporation, LTD (TIPC) on March, 2012. Although the TIPC has been reformed, the members are still in the alternation stage with the old employees and new comers. While the senior staff, who are public servants gradually retire, the new hired employees still need some time to adapt the new environment. In consequence, the work force is getting aging and discrepancy that will result in serious managerial problems to the organization.
    How to effectively cultivate the work environment that allows the newcomers having senior staff experiences, develops the middle level cadres of managers, and establishes the mechanism to integrate resources is very critical issues. It must be addressed squarely by the TIPC. Focusing on the four variables of the organizational culture, organizational socialization, organizational commitment, and the turnover intention, this study examines the relationship among the four variables. The findings provide managerial implications for TIPC to implement human resource management and preventing employees from leaving their jobs.
    The purpose of this study is to explore the associations among organizational culture, organizational socialization, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and the moderation effect of newcomer and senior staff. The participants of this study were employees of TIPC. The total valid sample size was 280. Using SPSS21 and AMOS 21 the data was analyzed by the descriptive statistics analysis, t test, one-way ANOVA, Reliability Analysis and Validity Analysis, Pearson product-moment correlation, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), and Multiple Hierarchical Regression Analysis.
    Based upon the hierarchical regression analysis, the findings were as follows:
    First, organizational socialization has negatively relationship with turnover intention but no significance. Second, for relationships among the three different types of organizational culture and turnover intention, only innovative culture has positive and significant impact on turnover intention. While bureaucratic culture and supportive culture have negative directions with turnover intention, neither of them show significant magnitudes with the outcome variable. But compared to previous research on the impact of organizational culture and turnover intention, the findings demonstrate the opposite direction. Third, organizational commitment has a negative and significant relationship with turnover intention. Four, the turnover intention of newcomer is indeed higher than senior staff. Finally, there is a moderation effect for newcomers and senior staff to the relationships among organizational socialization, bureaucratic culture, innovative culture, supportive culture and turnover intention. But newcomers and senior staff couldn’t moderate the relationship between organizational commitment and turnover intention.
    From the empirical results of this study, three conclusions are drawn. First, the members of the company have different opinions on the type of organizational culture that is different from previous studies. From this point of view, the TIPC needs to contemplate how to develop and strengthen the overall impression of members on the organization. Second, as a whole, newcomers and senior staff have a high level of organizational commitment to the company. The result indicates that when members can recognize more about the organizational values, business models, and relationships with their cohorts, the less likely that they will leave the company. In other words, employees can stay longer and contribute more for the company.. Third, when it comes to organizational socialization, institution-based culture, innovative culture, and supportive culture, those newcomers are less likely to leave their jobs than senior staff.
    Our suggestions of this study are as below:
    1. TIPC should pay more attention to the issue of newcomers’ and senior staff’s turnover intention and consider the important influence of organizational culture, organizational socialization and organizational commitment.
    2. In terms of this study, we look forward to providing enterprises with a reference of how to focus on different types of personnel category (e.g., newcomers vs. senior staff) about the problem of turnover intention. The differences between the two types of personnel category regarding their turnover intention are based on different organizational culture patterns, strategies and plans for organizing socialization. TIPC should also think about how to enhance the organizational commitment of their members, and design relevant strategies to make its strategic plan more comprehensive.
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