|題名: ||Food, Witch-craft, and Gu Poisoning: Changing Images of Tiaosheng Magic during the Song, Yuan, and Ming|
|關鍵詞: ||挑生;蠱毒;妖術;醫療;嶺南;tiaosheng 挑生|
gu poisoning;black magic;medical treatment;Lingnan 嶺南
|上傳時間: ||2018-06-19 17:40:01 (UTC+8)|
The Chinese term tiaosheng 挑生(lit. ＂reanimating life＂) originally referred to a form of magic used to ham people by ＂reviving＂ the food in their body. It was regarded as a form of black magic that must be exorcised, and/or an affliction that required treatment. From the twelfth century onwards, tiaosheng magic is widely recorded in different literary genres, ranging from lawsuit records, literary sketches, and collections of writings, to medical texts. In addition to local governors and physicians, their writers included demoted officials and travelling scholars from the north. Owing to these writers' personal perceptions and conceptions, and the widespread dissemination of their works, an increasing number of people came to believe that tiaosheng magic was widely practiced in - though not restricted to - the Lingnan 嶺南 region in the far south of China. The imagery of tiaosheng magic and its association with the South continued to circulate during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. But its geographical territory had expanded from Guangdong 廣東and Guangxi 廣西 into Guizhou 貴州and Yunnan 雲南. due to the rapid expansion of the Empire and migration of the Han 漢ethnic group to those frontier regions. Moreover, since the Song dynasty, tiaosheng magic had become gradually absorbed into the grand narratives of the form of witchcraft known as ＂gu poisoning蠱毒＂ As such, tiaosheng not only referred to a form of black magic that ＂reanimated＂ the food in the human body, but had also become closely related to these other types of magic and similarly connected with the allure of money and sexual control. It was even claimed that non-Han ethnic groups in these newly developed regions of the Ming Empire were skilled in these arts. In any case, examining tiaosheng magic's changing imagery between the Song and Ming dynasties will help to reveal how people perceived the relationship between food and magic. It will also help us to rethink how tiaosheng as bodily experiences of a local illness/syndrome were shaped by both nature and culture in the Lingnan region. Furthennore, the variety of literary genres used to write about tiaosheng magic also show how local knowledge was shared, rewritten and transmitted, which necessarily involves interaction between the writer and the observed.
|關聯: ||漢學研究, Vol.34, No.3, pp.9-51|