The influence of resource availability and reciprocity attitude on prosocial behaviors of young children
|上傳時間: ||2018-07-12 13:58:57 (UTC+8)|
The behaviors of young children helping people, such as the age of young children's helping behaviors, the interpretation of goals, and the influence of emotional interpreting ability on children's helping behaviors...etc have been paid much attention in many past types of research. It can be discovered that these behaviors can be influenced by many factors. This study will focus on researching the reciprocal attitudes and resource availability. Among the four experimental scenarios, three to four-year-old children were treated with or without help in the resource availability or unavailability scenarios, and then whether the child would change the behavior of the experimenter was observed. The control group was the pretest of each group of children before being manipulated by the experimenter. As the results, under the manipulation of the helper's attitude, the propensity of the children in the two situations was significantly improved; under the manipulation of the experimenter's refusal to help, the help of the children in the resource-available group still improved, while the resources were unavailable. The help performance is the same as before the attitude is manipulated. It is shown that when the experimenter's resources are not available to him and he is not willing to give the child, the child is more sensitive to the attitude of refusing help.
|參考文獻: ||Azmitia, M., & Hesser, J. (1993). Why siblings are important agents of cognitive development: a comparison of siblings and peers. Child Development, 64, 430-444.|
Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: John Wiley.
Bian, Y. J., & Ang, S. (1997). Guanxi networks and job mobility in China and Singapore. Social Forces, 75,981–1005.
Blake, P. R., & Rand, D. G. (2010). Currency value moderates equity preference among young children. Evolution & Human Behavior, 31, 210-218.
Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31, 874–900.
Dunfield, K. A., & Kuhlmeier, V. A. (2010). Intention-mediated selective helping in infancy. Psychological Science, 21, 523-527.
Fehr, E., Fischbacher, U., & Gächter, S. (2002). Strong reciprocity, human cooperation, and the enforcement of social norms. Human Nature,13, 1-25.
Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25,161–178.
Hepach, R., Haberl, K., Lambert, StÃ©phane, & Tomasello, M. (2017). Toddlers help anonymously. Infancy, 22, 130-145.
House, B., Henrich, J., Sarnecka, B., & Silk, J. B. (2013). The development of contingent reciprocity in children. Evolution & Human Behavior, 34, 86-93.
Jackson M．&Tisak M．S．(2001)．Is Prosocial Behavior A Good Thing?Developmental Changes in Children’S Evaluations of Helping，Sharing，Cooperating，and Comforting．British Journal of Developmental Psychology．19,349—-367．
Kenward, B., Hellmer, K., Winter, L. S., & Eriksson, M. (2015). Four-year-olds' strategic allocation of resources: attempts to elicit reciprocation correlate negatively with spontaneous helping. Cognition,136, 1–8.
Levitt, M. J., Weber, R. A., Clark, M. C., & McDonnell, P. (1985). Reciprocity of exchange in toddler sharing behavior. Developmental Psychology, 21, 122–123.
Liu, H. (2008). Kin selection theory:kin altruistic behavior and gene mechanism in organisms. Journal of Huazhong Normal University.
Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Eighteen-month-old infants show increased helping following priming with affiliation. Psychological Science, 20, 1189-1193.
Pettygrove, D. M., Hammond, S. I., Karahuta, E. L., Waugh, W. E., & Brownell, C. A. (2013). From cleaning up to helping out: parental socialization and children's early prosocial behavior. Infant Behavior & Development, 36, 843.
Staub, E., & Sherk, L. (1970). Need for approval, children's sharing behavior, and reciprocity in sharing. Child Development, 41, 243–252.
Sahlins, M. (1972). Stone age economics. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Shore, L. M., Tetrick, L. E., Lynch, P., & Barksdale, K.(2006). Social and economic exchange: Construct development and validation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 837–867.
Song, J. W., Tusi, A. S., & Law, S. K. (2009). Unpacking employee responses to organizational exchange mechanisms: The role of social and economic exchange perceptions. Journal of Management, 35, 56–93.
Svetlova, M., Nichols, S. R., & Brownell, C. A. (2010). Toddlers' prosocial behavior: from instrumental to empathic to altruistic helping. Child Development, 81, 1814–1827.
Sebastián-Enesco, C., Hernández-Lloreda, M. V., & Colmenares, F. (2013). Two and a half-year-old children are prosocial even when their partners are not. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116, 186-198.
Sommerville, J. A., Schmidt, M. F. H., Yun, J. E., & Burns, M. (2013). The development of fairness expectations and prosocial behavior in the second year of life. Infancy, 18, 40–66.
Thompson, R. A., & Newton, E. K. (2013). Baby altruists? examining the complexity of prosocial motivation in young children. Infancy, 18, 120–133.
Vaish, A., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2010). Young children selectively avoid helping people with harmful intentions. Child Development, 81, 1661-9.
Vaish, A., Hepach, R., & Tomasello, M. (2018). The specificity of reciprocity: young children reciprocate more generously to those who intentionally benefit them. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology,167, 336-353.
Wu, J. B., Hom, P. W., Tetrick, L. E., Shore, L. M., Jia, L. D.,Li, C. P., et al. (2006). The norm of reciprocity: Scale development and validation in the Chinese context. Management and Organization Review, 2, 377–402.
Warneken, F., Hare, B., Melis, A. P., Hanus, D., & Tomasello, M. (2007). Spontaneous altruism by chimpanzees and young children. Plos Biology, 5, e184.
Warneken, F., & Tomasello, M. (2006). Altruistic helping in human infants and young chimpanzees. Science, 311, 1301–1303.
Warneken, F., & Tomasello, M. (2007). Helping and cooperation at 14 months of age. Infancy, 11, 271–294.
Warneken, F., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Extrinsic rewards undermine altruistic tendencies in 20-month-olds. Dev Psychol, 44, 1785-8
Warneken, F., & Tomasello, A. M. (2009). Varieties of altruism in children and chimpanzees. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13, 397.
Warneken, F., & Tomasello, M. (2013). The emergence of contingent reciprocity in young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology,116, 338-350.
Warneken, F., & Tomasello, M. (2013). Parental presence and encouragement do not influence helping in young children. Infancy, 18, 345-368.
Warneken, F. (2013). Young children proactively remedy unnoticed ccidents. Cognition, 126, 101-108.
Yeung, I. Y. M., & Tung, R. L. (1996). Achieving business success in Confucian societies: The importance of Guanxi(connections). Organization Dynamics, 25, 54–65.
Yum, J. (1988). The impact of confucianism on interpersonal relationships and communication patterns in East Asia. Communication Monographs, 55, 374–388.