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    Title: 黨國體制下的中國軍事指揮權
    Military Command Power in Party-State China
    Authors: 徐肇松
    Xu, Zhaosong
    Contributors: 陳起行
    Chen, Chi-Shing
    徐肇松
    Xu, Zhaosong
    Keywords: 軍事指揮權
    中央軍事委員會
    行政權
    文官控制軍隊
    中華人民共和國憲法(1982)
    黨國體制
    Military command power
    Central Military Commission
    Executive power
    Civilian control of military
    Constitution of the People's Republic of China (1982)
    Party-state regime
    Date: 2018
    Issue Date: 2018-07-23 16:51:53 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在中國憲法中,軍事指揮權的歸屬是一個尚未解決的問題。中華人民共和國憲法(1982)將軍隊指揮體系排除在行政機關之外。中央軍事委員會(中央軍委)指揮全國武裝力量(第93條),而作為行政機關的國務院“領導和管理國防建設事業”(第89條第10款)。對憲法文本的解釋,不能支持政府擁有軍隊指揮權的論點。相反,中央軍委獨佔軍事指揮權。

    比較研究發現,從軍事指揮權的憲法安排大致可以分為三類:行政機關控制型、軍令權獨立型,以及折中型。中國大陸的設計屬於軍令權獨立型,因為它將軍事指揮完全賦予一個行政機關外的憲法機關。

    從憲政主義的精神來看,行政機關控制型在追求民主正當性、效率以及自由人權保護上表現最佳,而軍令權獨立型則表現最差。相應的,軍令權獨立型所具有的問題也反應在中國大陸的實務之中。此外,在社會變遷,政治現實以及憲法學說演進的情況下,當初建立中央軍委的憲法目的不能實現。所以,大陸的憲法改革勢在必行。

    大陸的憲法改革者應該引入行政機關控制模式,以促進治理效率以及軍事行動的政治責任。首先,把軍事指揮權分配給國務院,並且確立從總理經由國防部長到聯合參謀部參謀長的指揮鏈條。其次,增強國會對軍事行動的監督,以防止行政機關濫用軍事權力。
    The allocation of military command power in Chinese constitutional law is an unsolved question. The Constitution of P. R. China (1982) segregates the military command system from the executive. The Central Military Commission (CMC) commands the armed forces of China (Article 93), while the executive branch, the State Council retains the authority “to direct and administer the building of national defence” (Article 89 (10)). An interpretation of the constitutional text cannot support the thesis that the government can command the military. Instead, the CMC has the exclusive authority over military command.

    From a comparative perspective, the constitutional arrangement of military command power can be subsumed into three types: the executive control model, the independence of military command model and the middle model. The Chinese design is the model of independence of military command, because it allocates military command completely to a constitutional institution other than the executive.

    In the lens of constitutional interests, the executive control model performs best to pursue values of democratic legitimacy, effectiveness and protection of liberty and human rights, while independence model performs worse. Accordingly, these shortcomings of independence model are also reflected in Chinese practice. Furthermore, the constitutional purposes for setting up the CMC fails by virtue of social changes, political reality and evolution of constitutional theory. Therefore, a constitutional reform for China is imperative.

    Chinese constitutional reformers should introduce the executive control model to facilitate effectiveness and political accountability of military actions. The first step is to allocate military command power to the State Council and set up a chain of command from the Premier through the Defence Minister to the Chief of Joint Staff. The second step is to enhance parliamentary oversight on executive deployment of military, in order to prevent the executive from abuse of military power.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    法律科際整合研究所
    104652032
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0104652032
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/THE.NCCU.LAWID.002.2018.F10
    Appears in Collections:[法律與科技整合研究所] 學位論文

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