政大機構典藏-National Chengchi University Institutional Repository(NCCUR):Item 140.119/118829
English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Post-Print筆數 : 11 |  Items with full text/Total items : 89327/119107 (75%)
Visitors : 23820409      Online Users : 190
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/118829

    Title: 探討美國的科倫拜校園事件與桑迪·胡克小學槍擊案事發期間遊戲報導的視角:自由派與保守派的觀點分析
    From Columbine to Sandy Hook: Video Games in US Liberal and Conservative Newspaper Reporting During School Shootings
    Authors: 孫柯
    Swinburne, Tomas Francis
    Contributors: 林日璇
    Lin, Jih-Hsuan Tammy
    Swinburne, Tomas Francis
    Keywords: Liberal
    Video Games
    Media bias
    School Shootings
    Date: 2018
    Issue Date: 2018-07-24 11:01:22 (UTC+8)
    This thesis aims to discover how liberal and conservative US newspapers report on video game during times of school shootings from partisan viewpoints in newspapers, specifically the liberal New York Times, Washington Post, and the conservative Chicago Tribune and New York Post, along with the Wall Street Journal to add a neutral viewpoint to offer balance. Understanding how newspapers report on video games through different moral weightings is essential for further understanding the place video games inhabit in both the media and society at large. It needs to be understand whether or not video games were reasons for school shootings and how this discourse has changed from the Columbine Shooting in 1999, to the Sandy Hook shooting in late 2012. Video games are no longer a fringe culture, they are mainstream and further research needs to be conducted to understand how the media disseminates their views on video games to readers who base their perception of video games on frames produced with partisan influence. Through the theoretical framework of Blame Theory's Path Model to Blame, a qualitative content analysis was performed to analyse newspaper articles through thematic coding using template analysis. This thesis contributes to existing literature because this field has not been researched thoroughly and there is a lack of consensus on how the media report on video games in current literature, particularly from a qualitative point of view.
    Reference: 參考文獻
    ABC News (2001, June 21). Protests in Denver Over Marilyn Manson Gig. Retrieved May 07, 2017, from http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/story?id=104105&page=1
    Achenbach, J., & Russakoff, D. (1999, Apr 29). Portrait of a teen at war; colorado killer craved violence; medication barred enlistment in marines. The Washington Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/408446400?accountid=10067
    Achenbach, J. (2012, Dec 17). Anguished search for an explanation. The Washington Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1238989286?accountid=10067
    Althaus, S. L., & Tewksbury, D. (2002). Agenda setting and the “new” news patterns of issue importance among readers of the paper and online versions of the New York Times. Communication Research, 29(2), 180-207.
    Altheide, D. L. (2009). The Columbine shootings and the discourse of fear. American Behavioral Scientist, 52(10), 1354-1370.
    Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual review of psychology, 53(1), 27-51.
    Anderson, C. A., Shibuya, A., Ihori, N., Swing, E. L., Bushman, B. J., Sakamoto, A., ... & Saleem, M. (2010). Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in eastern and western countries: a meta-analytic review.
    Anderson, L., and Graham, J., (1999, Apr 23). BOMB, VIDEOS, LETTER FOUND. Chicago Tribune Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/418919850?accountid=10067
    Anderson, L., and Graham, J., (1999, Apr 26). `OUTPOURING OF LOVE' FOR 13 VICTIMS. Chicago Tribune Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/418889967?accountid=10067
    Arietta-Kenna, R. (2016, October 25). These Are the Only 6 Newspapers in the Country to Endorse Donald Trump. Retrieved March 11, 2018, from https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2016/10/donald-trump-newspaper-endorsements-214390
    Babbie, E. (2015) The practice of social research (14th ed.or 13th ed.). Boston: Cengage.
    Belluck, P., & Wilgoren, J., (1999, Jun 29). Caring parents, no answers, in columbine killers' pasts. New York Times Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/431177458?accountid=10067
    Bingham, A. (2010). The digitization of newspaper archives: Opportunities and challenges for historians. Twentieth Century British History, 21(2), 225-231.
    Brants, K., & Voltmer, K. (Eds.). (2011). Political communication in postmodern democracy: Challenging the primacy of politics. Springer.
    Block, J. J. (2007). Lessons from Columbine: virtual and real rage. American Journal of
    Forensic Psychiatry, 28(2), 5
    Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
    Brooks, J., McCluskey, S., Turley, E., & King, N. (2015). The utility of template analysis in qualitative psychology research. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 12(2),
    Brown, J. (1999, April 24). Doom, Quake and mass murder. Retrieved May 07, 2017, from http://www.salon.com/1999/04/23/gamers/
    Bruni, F. (1999, May 12). Senate debates bill to combat youth violence. New York Times Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/431176630?accountid=10067
    Buckman, A. (1999, Apr 23). BLAME TV FOR KIDS WHO KILL - VILE SHOWS DRAG THEM TO THE DARK SIDE. New York Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/333793465?accountid=10067
    Burla, L., Knierim, B., Barth, J., Liewald, K., Duetz, M., & Abel, T. (2008). From text to codings: intercoder reliability assessment in qualitative content analysis. Nursing research, 57(2), 113-117.
    Boutyline, A., & Willer, R. (2017). The social structure of political echo chambers: Variation in ideological homophily in online networks. Political
    Psychology, 38(3), 551-569.
    Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts versus media misinformation. American Psychologist, 56(6-7), 477.
    Calmes, J. (1999, Jun 24). Prosperity gives politicians a chance to discuss values. Wall Street Journal Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/398830651?accountid=10067
    Chiang, C. F., & Knight, B. (2011). Media bias and influence: Evidence from newspaper endorsements. The Review of Economic Studies, 78(3), 795-820.
    Chyi, H. I., & McCombs, M. (2004). Media salience and the process of framing: Coverage of the Columbine school shootings. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(1), 22-35.
    Cision. (2016, May 11). Top 10 US Daily Newspapers. Retrieved November 05, 2017, from https://www.cision.com/us/2014/06/top-10-us-daily-newspapers/
    Clinton to Avoid Scapegoating At Violence Summit (1999, May 10). Chicago Tribune Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/418848621?accountid=10067
    Cohen, S. (2002). Folk devils and moral panics: The creation of the mods and rockers. Psychology Press.
    Colleoni, E., Rozza, A., & Arvidsson, A. (2014). Echo chamber or public sphere? Predicting political orientation and measuring political homophily in Twitter using big data. Journal of Communication, 64(2), 317-332.
    Day, M. V., Fiske, S. T., Downing, E. L., & Trail, T. E. (2014). Shifting liberal and conservative attitudes using moral foundations theory. Personality and Social
    Psychology Bulletin, 40(12), 1559-1573.
    Dewar, H. (1999, May 13). Senate turns down rules to tighten gun show sales; expanded background checks rejected. The Washington Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/408473183?accountid=10067
    Donagan, A. (1979). The theory of morality. University of Chicago Press.
    Dreher, R. (1999, Apr 29). YES, POP CULTURE IS TO BLAME: PARENTAL GUIDANCE REQUIRED IS THE LESSON OF COLUMBINE. New York Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/333801808?accountid=10067
    Earle, G. (2013, Jan 12). Team O shoots down NRA's 'no-ban' push. New York Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1269122187?accountid=10067
    Egan, T. (1999, Apr 22). Violence by youths: Looking for answers. New York Times Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/431164668?accountid=10067
    Egan, T. (1999, Apr 25). The trouble with looking for signs of trouble. New York Times Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/431160992?accountid=10067
    Egan, T. (1999, Apr 22). Violence by youths: Looking for answers. New York Times Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/431164668?accountid=10067
    Entman, R. M. (1993). Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of communication, 43(4), 51-58.
    Entman, R. M. (2003). Cascading activation: Contesting the White House's frame after 9/11. Political Communication, 20(4), 415-432.
    Entman, R. M. (2007). Framing bias: Media in the distribution of power. Journal of communication, 57(1), 163-173.
    Entertainment Software Association. (2017). 2017 Sales, Demographics and Usage Data Essential facts about the computer and video game industry.
    Everitt, B. (1996). Making sense of statistics in psychology: A second-level course. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    FBI (2015). Uniform Crime Reporting 1974-2014. Retrieved May 08, 2017, from
    Feith, D. (2012, Dec 21). An education war without end. Wall Street Journal (Online) Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1242121555?accountid=10067
    Fereday, J., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2006). Demonstrating rigor using thematic analysis: A hybrid approach of inductive and deductive coding and theme development. International journal of qualitative methods, 5(1), 80-92.
    Ferguson, C. J. (2008). The school shooting/violent video game link: causal relationship or moral panic?. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 5(1‐2), 25-37.
    Ferguson, C. J., & Kilburn, J. (2009). The public health risks of media violence: A meta-analytic review. The Journal of pediatrics, 154(5), 759-763.
    Ferguson, C. J. (2011, December 07). Video Games Don’t Make Kids Violent. Time Magazine, Retrieved May 08, 2017, from http://ideas.time.com/2011/12/07/video-games-dont-make-kids-violent/
    Ferguson, C. J., & Colwell, J. (2017). Understanding Why Scholars Hold Different Views on the Influences of Video Games on Public Health. Journal of Communication.
    Fields, G., Devlin, B., & Favole, J. (2012, Dec 17). Lawmakers weigh in on gun control. Wall Street Journal (Online) Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1239223600?accountid=10067
    Follman, M., Aronsen, G., & Pan, D. (2017). US Mass Shootings, 1982-2017: Data From Mother Jones' Investigation. MotherJones.com. Retrieved May 17, 2017, from http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2012/12/mass-shootings-mother-jones-full-data
    Franklin, B. (2014). The Future of Journalism: In an age of digital media and economic uncertainty.
    Fulgoni, D., Carpenter, J., Ungar, L. H., & Preotiuc-Pietro, D. (2016). An Empirical Exploration of Moral Foundations Theory in Partisan News Sources. In LREC.
    Garland, D. (2008). On the concept of moral panic. Crime, Media, Culture, 4(1), 9-30.
    Gamson, W. A., Croteau, D., Hoynes, W., & Sasson, T. (1992). Media images and the social construction of reality. Annual review of sociology, 18(1), 373-393.
    Gentile, D. A., Lynch, P. J., Linder, J. R., & Walsh, D. A. (2004). The effects of violent video game habits on adolescent hostility, aggressive behaviors, and school performance. Journal of adolescence, 27(1), 5-22.
    Gentzkow, M., & Shapiro, J. M. (2006). Media bias and reputation. Journal of political Economy, 114(2), 280-316.
    Goodwin, M. (2012, Dec 19). O, stop this apocalypse . . . now! New York Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1240663114?accountid=10067
    Goode, E. (1999, Apr 25). When violent fantasy emerges as reality. New York Times Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/431160427?accountid=10067
    Goode, E. (1999, May 04). Deeper truths sought in violence by youths. New York Times Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/431176672?accountid=10067
    Gore, J. (2012, Dec 17). Sandy hook shootings: Too many shades of gray. The Washington Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1239461769?accountid=10067
    Graham, J., Haidt, J., & Nosek, B. A. (2009). Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations. Journal of personality and social psychology,
    96(5), 1029.
    Graham, J., Haidt, J., Koleva, S., Motyl, M., Iyer, R., Wojcik, S. P., & Ditto, P. H. (2013). Moral foundations theory: The pragmatic validity of moral pluralism. In Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 47, pp. 55-130). Academic Press.
    Greitemeyer, T., & Mügge, D. O. (2014). Video games do affect social outcomes a meta-analytic review of the effects of violent and prosocial video game play. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 0146167213520459.
    Griffiths, R. (2010). The gothic folk devils strike back! Theorizing folk devil reaction in the post-Columbine era. Journal of youth studies, 13(3), 403-422.
    Grunwald, M. (1999, Jun 18). Culture wars erupt in debate on hill; display of ten commandments backed. The Washington Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/408469364?accountid=10067
    Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Harvard University Press.
    Haidt, J. (2001). The emotional dog and its rational tail: a social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological review, 108(4), 814.
    Haidt, J., & Graham, J. (2007). When morality opposes justice: Conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize. Social Justice Research, 20(1), 98-116.
    Harris, J. F., & Waxman, S. (1999, Jun 02). Clinton says FTC to study marketing of violence. The Washington Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/408483566?accountid=10067
    Hester, J. B., & Dougall, E. (2007). The efficiency of constructed week sampling for content analysis of online news. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly,
    84(4), 811-824.
    Inbar, Y., Pizarro, D. A., & Bloom, P. (2009). Conservatives are more easily disgusted than liberals. Cognition and emotion, 23(4), 714-725.
    Inbar, Y., Pizarro, D. A., & Cushman, F. (2012). Benefiting from misfortune: When harmless actions are judged to be morally blameworthy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(1), 52-62.
    Janega, J., & Deardorff, J., (1999, Apr 26). DOOM GAME ATTRACTED 2 TEENS GUNMEN REPORTEDLY FANS OF VIDEO FULL OF ATTACKING MUTANTS. Chicago Tribune Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/418911881?accountid=10067
    Joffe, H., & Yardley, L. (2004). Content and thematic analysis. Research methods for
    clinical and health psychology, 56, 68.
    Karlsen, F. (2015). Analyzing game controversies: A historical approach to moral panics and digital games. The Dark Side of Game Play: Controversial Issues
    in Playful Environments. New York and London: Routledge, 15-32.
    Keller, J., & Graham, J., (1999, Apr 22). REMOTE SUBURBIA OFTEN BREEDS TEEN ALIENATION. Chicago Tribune Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/418690165?accountid=1006
    King, N. (2004). Using templates in the thematic analysis of text. Essential guide to
    qualitative methods in organizational research, 2, 256-70.
    Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Sage.
    Lakoff, G. (2014).The All New Don't Think of an Elephant!: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate.Chelsea Green Publishing.
    Lee, C. C. (2002). Established pluralism: US elite media discourse about China policy. Journalism Studies, 3(3), 343-357.
    Lichtblau, E., & Rich, M. (2012, Dec 22). N.R.A. envisions 'a good guy with a gun' in every school. New York Times Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1248145341?accountid=10067
    Lippmann, W. (1946). Public opinion (Vol.1). Transaction Publishers.
    Palmeri, T., MacLeod, D., & Italiano, L. (2012, Dec 19). Slaughter of the innocents 'playtime' in den of doom killer's basement his eerie lair of violent vid games. New York Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1240663120?accountid=10067
    Puglisi, R., & Snyder Jr, J. M. (2015). The balanced US press. Journal of the European Economic Association, 13(2), 240-264.
    Lombard, M., Snyder‐Duch, J., & Bracken, C. C. (2002). Content analysis in mass communication: Assessment and reporting of intercoder
    reliability. Human communication research, 28(4), 587-604.
    Luntz, F. (2007). Words that work: It's not what you say, it's what people hear. Hachette Books.
    Macnamara, J. R. (2005). Media content analysis: Its uses, benefits and best practice methodology. Asia-Pacific Public Relations Journal, 6(1), 1.
    Mahony, E. H., & Altimari, D. (2012, Dec 16). A methodical massacre. Chicago Tribune Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1238829695?accountid=10067
    Malle, B. F. (2004). How the mind explains behavior: Folk explanations, meaning, and social interaction. MIT Press.
    Malle, B. F., Guglielmo, S., & Monroe, A. E. (2012). Moral, cognitive, and social: The nature of blame. Social thinking and interpersonal behaviour, 313-331.
    Malle, B. F., Guglielmo, S., & Monroe, A. E. (2014). A theory of blame.
    Inquiry, 25(2), 147-186.
    Martins, N., Weaver, A. J., Yeshua‐Katz, D., Lewis, N. H., Tyree, N. E., & Jensen, J. D. (2013). A content analysis of print news coverage of media violence and aggression research. Journal of Communication, 63(6), 1070-1087.
    McCombs, M. E., & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media.
    Public opinion quarterly, 36(2),176-187.
    McGinty, E. E., Webster, D. W., Jarlenski, M., & Barry, C. L. (2014). News media framing of serious mental illness and gun violence in the United States, 1997-2012. American journal of public health, 104(3),406-413.
    McHugh, M. L. (2012). Interrater reliability: the kappa statistic. Biochemia medica, 22(3), 276-282.
    Meyers, M. (1999, Apr 27). AFTER LITTLETON - THE RUSH TO STUPID ANSWERS. New York Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/333803101?accountid=10067
    Mitchell, A., Gottfried, J., Kiley, J., & Matsa, K. E. (2014). Political polarization & media habits. Pew Research Center, 21.
    Möller, I., & Krahé, B. (2009). Exposure to violent video games and aggression in German adolescents: A longitudinal analysis. Aggressive Behavior, 35(1), 75-89.
    Muschert, G. W., & Carr, D. (2006). Media salience and frame changing across events: Coverage of nine school shootings, 1997–2001.
    Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 83(4), 747-766.
    Muschert, G. W. (2007). Research in school shootings. Sociology Compass, 1(1), 60-80.
    Muschert, G. W. (2009). Frame-changing in the media coverage of a school shooting: The rise of Columbine as a national concern. The Social Science Journal, 46(1), 164-170.
    Neuendorf, K. A. (2016). The content analysis guidebook. Sage publications.
    Newbold, C., Boyd-Barrett, O., & Van den Bulck, H. (Eds.). (2002). The media book.
    London: Arnold.
    Oliveira, P.,Jr. (2012, Dec 22). Slaughter of the innocents 'duty' kid: Game over. New York Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1243092067?accountid=10067
    Onishi, N. (2013, Jan 12). Lawmaker seeks public reply on guns. New York Times Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1269099312?accountid=10067
    Parole denied to woman who killed 2 in 1979 school shooting. (2001, Apr 18). Los Angeles Times Retrieved from https://search-proquest com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/421609376?accountid=10067
    Pianin, E., & Eilperin, J. (1999, Jun 18). House votes to weaken senate gun show checks. The Washington Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/408485010?accountid=10067
    Pollack, A. (1999, May 14). Video game industry gathers under siege. New York Times Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/431172276?accountid=10067
    Popik, B. (2004). Digital historical newspapers: A review of the powerful new research tools. Journal of English Linguistics, 32(2), 114-123. Realdonaldtrump
    Plumer, B., & Fahrenthold, D. A. (2012, Dec 19). Gun industry recoils from horror. The Washington Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1239912894?accountid=10067
    Reynolds, B. (2012, Dec 17). Newtown shootings: Focus on mental illness first (posted 2012-12-17 23:22:08). The Washington Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1239457066?accountid=10067
    Ridout, T. N., Fowler, E. F., & Searles, K. (2012). Exploring the validity of electronic newspaper databases. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 15(6), 451-466.
    Richtel, M. (1999, Apr 29). Game makers on the defensive after the columbine shootings. New York Times Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/431151508?accountid=10067
    Rohloff, A., & Wright, S. (2010). Moral panic and social theory beyond the heuristic. Current Sociology, 58(3), 403-419.
    Rothmund, T., Bender, J., Nauroth, P., & Gollwitzer, M. (2015). Public concerns about violent video games are moral concerns—How moralthreat can make pacifists susceptible to scientific and political claims
    against violent video games. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45(6),
    Rubin, B., M. (1999, Apr 26). MANY WONDER HOW SIGNS WENT UNNOTICED. Chicago Tribune Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/418921608?accountid=10067
    Sam, H. V. (1999, Apr 22). 15 bodies are removed from school in colorado. New York Times Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/431159961?accountid=10067
    Samuelson, R. (1999, May 01). GUNS AND OTHER SCAPEGOATS. New York Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/333845275?accountid=10067
    Samuelson, R. (1999, May 07). UNDERSTANDING THE `DRIFT OF OUR CULTURE'. Chicago Tribune Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/418874888?accountid=10067
    Searching for answers: American culture's role. (2012, Dec 18). New York Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1239588814?accountid=10067
    Segal, D. (1999, Apr 23). A deluge of lawsuits foreseen in littleton. The Washington Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/408453029?accountid=10067
    Seymour, L. (1999, May 27). Seeking nonviolent solutions; forum focuses on school tragedies. The Washington Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/408462501?accountid=10067
    Shaw, A. (2010). What is video game culture? Cultural studies and game studies. Games
    and culture, 5(4), 403-424
    Sheehy, K. (2013, Jan 08). Lanza shielded ears from kids' screams. New York Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1267127190?accountid=10067
    Scheufele, D. A. (1999). Framing as a theory of media effects. Journal of communication, 49(1), 103-122.
    Scheufele, D. A., & Tewksbury, D. (2007). Framing, agenda setting, and priming: The evolution of three media effects models. Journal of communication, 57(1), 9-20.
    Sheryl, G. S. (1999, May 09). Science looks at littleton, and shrugs. New York Times Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/431175244?accountid=10067
    Shoemaker, P. J., & Reese, S. D. (2013). Mediating the message in the 21st century: A media sociology perspective. Routledge.
    Smith, R. (2013, Jan 11). The truth about violent games. Chicago Tribune Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1268638704?accountid=10067
    Sørensen, E. (2013). Violent computer games in the German press. new media & society,
    15(6), 963-981.
    Stroud, N. J. (2010). Polarization and partisan selective exposure. Journal of
    Communication, 60(3), 556-576.
    Stryker, J. E., Wray, R. J., Hornik, R. C., & Yanovitzky, I. (2006). Validation of database search terms for content analysis: The case of cancer news coverage. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 83(2), 413-430.
    Sullivan, K., & Finn, P. (2012, Dec 19). Thousands journey to town to share their grief. The Washington Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1240014071?accountid=10067
    Susan, B. K. (1999, Apr 26). PARENTS HAVE TO NURTURE THEIR KIDS. New York Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/333821014?accountid=10067
    Sutter, J. D. (2012, April 20). Norway mass-shooting trial reopens debate on violent video games - CNN.com. Retrieved May 07, 2017, from
    Symon, G., & Cassell, C. (Eds.). (2012). Qualitative organizational research: core methods and current challenges. Sage.
    Taylor, J,. (1999, May 11). Gun-control legislation has a chance of senate passage as soon as this week. Wall Street Journal Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/398644063?accountid=10067
    Taylor, J., & Davis, B. (1999, Jun 03). Clinton picks an easy target for his campaign against youth violence: Makers of video games. Wall Street Journal Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/398702316?accountid=10067
    Taylor, J,. (1999, Jun 08). House GOP tries to curb violent fare --- hyde panel considers holding stores liable for sales to children. Wall Street Journal Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/398754671?accountid=10067
    Tonry, M. (2014). Why crime rates are falling throughout the Western world. Crime and
    Justice, 43(1), 1-63.
    Tough news in your face. (1999, Jun 08). Chicago Tribune Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/418995160?accountid=10067
    Veltman, N. (2016). Newspaper presidential endorsements, 1980 to present. Retrieved March 28, 2018, from https://noahveltman.com/endorsements/
    Video battlers stick by their games. (1999, Jun 20). New York Times Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/431186127?accountid=10067
    Waring, T., & Wainwright, D. (2008). Issues and challenges in the use of template analysis: Two comparative case studies from the field. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1)
    Wilgoren, J. & Johnson, D. (1999, Apr 23). Sketch of killers: Contradictions and confusion. New York Times Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/431159344?accountid=10067
    Wilson, S., & Rucker, P. (2012, Dec 18). President calls for proposals on guns. The Washington Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1239351155?accountid=10067
    Zak, D. (2012, Dec 22). NRA links violent media to mass shootings, but researchers are skeptical. The Washington Post Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/docview/1242199629?accountid=10067
    Description: 碩士
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0105461020
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/THE.NCCU.IMICS.007.2018.F05
    Appears in Collections:[International Master's Program in International Communication Studies] Theses

    Files in This Item:

    File SizeFormat
    102001.pdf1192KbAdobe PDF154View/Open

    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

    社群 sharing

    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback