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The Effect of Different Types of Argument on Elaboration and Decision Confidence: Traditional and Neuroscience Experiment Viewpoints
|Issue Date: ||2018-07-27 11:20:39 (UTC+8)|
因此，研究二則藉由功能性核磁共振造影 (fMRI) 進行實驗，透過掃描觀察消費者腦中認知腦區的活動情形，檢驗認知腦區是否有活化以確認受試者是否真的有思考，探討不同論點類型與有無搭配代言人下推敲程度真的有顯著差異，以解釋不同論點搭配代言人後對於說服力的提升效果有差異的原因。研究結果發現相比強論點與弱論點，簡則論點更容易受到代言人影響而提升其認知腦區的活化水準，儘管fMRI實驗可以較準確的確認受試者的腦區在接收不同論點下的推敲程度差異，確知簡則論點搭配代言人的效果是來自於更多的思考推敲，但受限於fMRI技術，對於不同情境下的推敲內容還無法探究。
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of three types of argument—namely strong, weak, and heuristic—on persuasiveness, elaboration, and decision confidence. Research has indicated that persuasiveness from heuristic cues results from the activation of a simple decision rule in a consumer’s mind. Conversely, the persuasiveness of strong and weak arguments is caused by elaborated argument content. Consumers face countless advertising messages and purchasing decisions daily and spending most of their time in a state of low elaboration. Studies have converted heuristic cues into simple descriptions to form one type of argument and used heuristic arguments, such as “most popular” and “limited edition,” to increase the effectiveness of ads. In addition, celebrities improve consumer trust and association with an advertisement, subsequently influencing the elaboration of the argument. This study thus investigated the interactions between arguments and celebrity and their effects on attitude.
Three studies were designed to verify the effect of different arguments on persuasiveness. Study 1 compared the effects of different arguments on the persuasiveness of advertisements using traditional experimental methods and explored the interaction effects between arguments and celebrity on this persuasiveness. The results of Study 1 showed that differences in product attitude between those with and without celebrities was stronger when consumers received heuristic arguments than when they received strong or weak arguments. However, Study 1 did not explain why the heuristic argument was more easily influenced by celebrity than by the weak or strong arguments.
Study 2 was conducted using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which was used to observe activation of brain areas. Thus, fMRI confirmed whether consumers were stimulated to think. Study 2 examined the differences in activation areas when consumers were presented with different arguments. The results of Study 2 indicated a difference in activation areas when consumers received heuristic arguments and strong or weak arguments.
Study 3 used traditional experimental methods involving two types of experimental products: running shoes and vacuum cleaners. This study compared the differences in elaboration type between strong, weak, and heuristic arguments through a combination of digital and print questionnaires. Studies have indicated that different degrees of involvement affect an individual’s information processing model and level of elaboration. Consequently, Study 3 investigated the effects of different arguments with or without celebrities on elaboration and decision confidence under different degrees of involvement.
The results of Study 3 revealed three main findings. First, consumers generated more relational elaboration when they received heuristic arguments than when they received strong or weak arguments. Conversely, consumers generated more item-specific elaboration when they received strong or weak arguments than when they were presented with heuristic arguments. Second, the difference in product attitude between advertisements with and without celebrities was stronger when highly-involved consumers received heuristic arguments than when they received strong or weak arguments. Third, highly-involved consumers generated more relational elaborations beyond the argument content when they received heuristic arguments. Highly-involved consumers generated more item-specific elaborations to the argument content when they received strong or weak arguments.
According to the results of the three studies, consumers generated different levels of elaboration and decision confidence when they received advertisements with different arguments. Therefore, this paper offers two contributions. First, the results can enrich relevant academic research on advertising communication. Second, they can be a vital reference for advertisers to design advertising or communication messages in the future.
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|Data Type: ||thesis|
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