|Reference: ||Bakshy, E., Messing, S., & Adamic, L. A. (2015). Exposure to ideologically diverse news and opinion on Facebook. Science, 348(6239), 1130-1132.|
Bauhinia Foundation Research Centre. (2016). Mobilising voters through social media in the U.S., Taiwan and Hong Kong. Retrieved from http://www.bauhinia.org/index.php/english/analyses/481
Baumgartner, J. C., & Morris, J. S. (2010). MyFaceTube politics: Social networking web sites and political engagement of young adults. Social Science Computer Review, 28(1), 24-44.
Benhabib, S. (1996). Toward a deliberative model of democratic legitimacy. Democracy and difference: Contesting the boundaries of the political, 67-94.
Bennett, W. L. (2012). The personalization of politics: Political identity, social media, and changing patterns of participation. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 644(1), 20-39.
Bimber, B., Flanagin, A. J., & Stohl, C. (2005). Reconceptualizing collective action in the contemporary media environment. Communication Theory, 15(4), 365-388.
Brady, H. E. (1999). Political participation. Measures of political attitudes, 2, 737-801.
Brain. (2014). Witnessing Media Force and Change from 318 Protest. Retrieved from http://www.brain.com.tw/news/articlecontent?ID=19980#xb3RNZca
Bond, R. M., Fariss, C. J., Jones, J. J., Kramer, A. D., Marlow, C., Settle, J. E., & Fowler, J. H. (2012). A 61-million-person experiment in social influence and political mobilization. Nature, 489(7415), 295.
Boulianne, S. (2015). Social media use and participation: A meta-analysis of current research. Information, Communication & Society, 18(5), 524-538.
Boyd, d. m., & Ellison, N. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13, 210−230.
Brundidge, J. (2010). Encountering “difference” in the contemporary public sphere: The contribution of the Internet to the heterogeneity of political discussion networks. Journal of Communication, 60(4), 680-700.
Bucher, T. (2012). Want to be on the top? Algorithmic power and the threat of invisibility on Facebook. new media & society, 14(7), 1164-1180.
Campbell, A., Gurin, G., & Miller, W. E. (1954). The voter decides.
Campbell, S. W., & Kwak, N. (2010). Mobile communication and civic life: Linking patterns of use to civic and political engagement. Journal of communication, 60(3), 536-555.
Campus, D. (2012). Political discussion, opinion leadership and trust. European Journal of Communication, 27(1), 46-55.
Carlisle, J. E., & Patton, R. C. (2013). Is social media changing how we understand political engagement? An analysis of Facebook and the 2008 presidential election. Political Research Quarterly, 66(4), 883-895.
Carpini, M. X. D., Cook, F. L., & Jacobs, L. R. (2004). Public deliberation, discursive participation, and citizen engagement: A review of the empirical literature. Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci., 7, 315-344.
Chang, D., & Ghim, G. (2011). The structure and dynamics of the Korean Twitter network. Journal of Communication Research, 48(1), 59-86.
Chen, H. T., Ping, S., & Chen, G. (2015). Far from reach but near at hand: The role of social media for cross-national mobilization. Computers in Human Behavior, 53, 443-451.
Cho, J., Shah, D. V., McLeod, J. M., McLeod, D. M., Scholl, R. M., & Gotlieb, M. R. (2009). Campaigns, reflection, and deliberation: Advancing an O‐S‐R‐O‐R 12
CNN. (2017). How #MeToo could move from social campaign to social change. Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/2017/10/30/health/metoo-legacy/index.html
Cogburn, D. L., & Espinoza-Vasquez, F. K. (2011). From networked nominee to networked nation: Examining the impact of Web 2.0 and social media on political participation and civic engagement in the 2008 Obama campaign. Journal of Political Marketing, 10(1-2), 189-213.
Conroy, M., Feezell, J. T., & Guerrero, M. (2012). Facebook and political engagement: A study of online political group membership and offline political engagement. Computers in Human behavior, 28(5), 1535-1546.
Conover, M., Ratkiewicz, J., Francisco, M. R., Gonçalves, B., Menczer, F., & Flammini, A. (2011). Political polarization on twitter. ICWSM, 133, 89-96.
Conway, M. M. (2000). Political participation in the United States. Cq Pr.
Cogburn, D. L., & Espinoza-Vasquez, F. K. (2011). From networked nominee to networked nation: Examining the impact of Web 2.0 and social media on political participation and civic engagement in the 2008 Obama campaign. Journal of Political Marketing, 10(1-2), 189-213.
Diani, M. (1992). The concept of social movement. The sociological review, 40(1), 1-25.
Derichs, C., & Fennert, D. (Eds.). (2014). Women's Movements and Countermovements: The Quest for Gender Equality in Southeast Asia and the Middle East. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
de Zúñiga, H. G., Copeland, L., & Bimber, B. (2014). Political consumerism: Civic engagement and the social media connection. New Media & Society, 16(3), 488-506.
Di Gennaro, C., & Dutton, W. (2006). The Internet and the public: Online and offline political participation in the United Kingdom. Parliamentary Affairs, 59(2), 299-313.
Economist. (2014). Why young people don’t vote. Retrieved from https://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2014/10/economist-explains-24
Effing, R., Van Hillegersberg, J., & Huibers, T. (2011). Social media and political participation: are Facebook, Twitter and YouTube democratizing our political systems?. Electronic participation, 25-35.
Elin, L. (2003). The radicalization of Zeke Spier: How the Internet contributes to civic engagement and new forms of social capital. In M. McCarthy & M. D. Ayers (Eds.), Cyberactivism: Online activism in theory and practice (pp. 97–114). New York, NY: Routledge.
Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “friends:” Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 12(4), 1143-1168.
Enli, G. (2017). Twitter as arena for the authentic outsider: exploring the social media campaigns of Trump and Clinton in the 2016 US presidential election. European Journal of Communication, 32(1), 50-61.
Erikson, E. (2008). " Hillary is my Friend": MySpace and Political Fandom. Rocky Mountain Communication Review, 5(1).
Eveland, W. P., & Hively, M. H. (2009). Political discussion frequency, network size, and “heterogeneity” of discussion as predictors of political knowledge and participation. Journal of Communication, 59(2), 205-224.
Eveland, Jr, W. P. (2004). The effect of political discussion in producing informed citizens: The roles of information, motivation, and elaboration. Political Communication,, 21(2), 177-193.
Eveland Jr, W. P., Shah, D. V., & Kwak, N. (2003). Assessing causality in the cognitive mediation model: A panel study of motivations, information processing, and learning during campaign 2000. Communication Research, 30(4), 359-386.Festinger, Leon. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Eveland Jr, W. P. (2001). The cognitive mediation model of learning from the news: Evidence from nonelection, off-year election, and presidential election contexts. Communication Research, 28(5), 571-601.
Facebook Business. (2016). 2016 Business Trend: Building up Connection with Asian Mobile Consumers. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/business/news/2016-Industry-Trends-Reaching-Asias-mobile-first-consumers-tw
Fernandes, J., Giurcanu, M., Bowers, K. W., & Neely, J. C. (2010). The writing on the wall: A content analysis of college students' Facebook groups for the 2008 presidential election. Mass Communication and Society, 13(5), 653-675.
FIND. (2017). More Than 80 percent of Taiwanese Use Facebook and Line. Averagely, One Person Will Own Four SNS Accounts. Retrieved from https://www.iii.org.tw/Press/NewsDtl.aspx?nsp_sqno=1934&fm_sqno=14
Freedman, D. (2014). The contradictions of media power. Bloomsbury Publishing.
Garrett, R. K. (2009). Echo chambers online?: Politically motivated selective exposure among Internet news users. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 14(2), 265-285.
Gibson, R., & Cantijoch, M. (2013). Conceptualizing and measuring participation in the age of the internet: Is online political engagement really different to offline?. The Journal of Politics, 75(3), 701-716.
Gil de Zúñiga, H., Lewis, S. C., Willard, A., Valenzuela, S., Lee, J. K., & Baresch, B. (2011). Blogging as a journalistic practice: A model linking perception, motivation, and behavior. Journalism, 12(5), 586-606.
Gil de Zúñiga, H., & Valenzuela, S. (2011). The mediating path to a stronger citizenship: Online and offline networks, weak ties, and civic engagement. Communication Research, 38(3), 397-421.
Gil de Zúñiga, H., Jung, N., & Valenzuela, S. (2012). Social media use for news and individuals' social capital, civic engagement and political participation. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 17(3), 319-336.
Gil de Zúñiga, H., Molyneux, L., & Zheng, P. (2014). Social media, political expression, and political participation: Panel analysis of lagged and concurrent relationships. Journal of Communication, 64(4), 612-634.
Gil de Zúñiga, H., Veenstra, A., Vraga, E., & Shah, D. (2010). Digital democracy: Reimagining pathways to political participation. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 7(1), 36-51.
Gleason, B. (2013). # Occupy Wall Street: Exploring informal learning about a social movement on Twitter. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(7), 966-982.
Global Views Research. (2014). Young Voters’ Attitude toward The 9- in- 1 Election. Retrieved from https://www.gvm.com.tw/article.html?id=19548
Gnambs, T., & Batinic, B. (2011). Convergent and discriminant validity of opinion leadership: Multitrait-multimethod analysis across measurement occasion and informant type. Journal of Individual Differences, 32(2), 94.
Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American journal of sociology, 78(6), 1360-1380.
Halberstam, Y., & Knight, B. (2016). Homophily, group size, and the diffusion of political information in social networks: Evidence from Twitter. Journal of Public Economics, 143, 73-88.
Hayes, A. F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Publications.
Hsieh, Y. P., & Li, M. H. (2014). Online political participation, civic talk, and media multiplexity: How Taiwanese citizens express political opinions on the Web. Information, Communication & Society, 17(1), 26-44.
iBuzz. (2016). Analysis on 2016 Presidential Election—from SNSs and Big Data. Retrieved from http://www.brain.com.tw/news/articlecontent?ID=22892&sort=
InsightXplorer. (2016). Biweekly Report 20160315. Retrived from http://www.ixresearch.com/%3Fp%3D12706
Johnson, T., & Perlmutter, D. (2009). “The Facebook Election: New Media and the 2008 Election Campaign” Special Symposium.
Karlsen, R. (2015). Followers are opinion leaders: The role of people in the flow of political communication on and beyond social networking sites. European Journal of Communication, 30(3), 301-318.
Kavanaugh, A., Zin, T. T., Carroll, J. M., Schmitz, J., Perez-Quinones, M., & Isenhour, P. (2006, May). When opinion leaders blog: New forms of citizen interaction. In Proceedings of the 2006 international conference on Digital government research(pp. 79-88). Digital Government Society of North America.
Keib, K., Himelboim, I., & Han, J. Y. (2018). Important tweets matter: Predicting retweets in the# BlackLivesMatter talk on twitter. Computers in Human Behavior, 85, 106-115.
Kelly, J. (2008). Pride of place: Mainstream media and the networked public sphere.
Kim, Y. (2011). The contribution of social network sites to exposure to political difference: The relationships among SNSs, online political messaging, and exposure to cross-cutting perspectives. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(2), 971-977.
Kim, E., Scheufele, D., & Han, J. Y. (2011). Structure or predisposition? Exploring the interaction effect of discussion orientation and discussion heterogeneity on political participation. Mass Communication and Society, 14(4), 502-526.
Kim, Y., Hsu, S. H., & de Zuniga, H. G. (2013). Influence of social media use on discussion network heterogeneity and civic engagement: The moderating role of personality traits. Journal of Communication, 63(3), 498-516.
Kim, Y., Chen, H. T., & De Zúñiga, H. G. (2013). Stumbling upon news on the Internet: Effects of incidental news exposure and relative entertainment use on political engagement. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(6), 2607-2614.
Kim, Y., & Chen, H. T. (2015). Discussion network heterogeneity matters: Examining a moderated mediation model of social media use and civic engagement. International Journal of Communication, 9, 22.
Kim, J., & Hyun, K. D. (2017). Political disagreement and ambivalence in new information environment: Exploring conditional indirect effects of partisan news use and heterogeneous discussion networks on SNSs on political participation. Telematics and Informatics, 34(8), 1586-1596.
Klandermans, B. (1984). Mobilization and participation: Social-psychological expansisons of resource mobilization theory. American sociological review, 583-600.
Klandermans, B. (1997). The social psychology of protest.
Klofstad, C. (2010). Civic talk: Peers, politics, and the future of democracy. Temple University Press.
Krueger, B. S. (2002). Assessing the potential of Internet political participation in the United States: A resource approach. American Politics Research, 30(5), 476-498.
Kushin, M. J., & Yamamoto, M. (2010). Did social media really matter? College students' use of online media and political decision making in the 2008 election. Mass Communication and Society, 13(5), 608-630.
Lee, M. Y. (2002). Exploring the Practice of Civic Participation of Internet Lurkers: A Case Study of the “Wild Strawberries Movement.” Mass Communication Research. 112, 77-116.
Lee, K. M. (2006). Effects of Internet use on college students' political efficacy. Cyberpsychology & behavior, 9(4), 415-422.
Lee, F. L. (2012). Does discussion with disagreement discourage all types of political participation? Survey evidence from Hong Kong. Communication Research, 39(4), 543-562.
Lee, J. K., Choi, J., Kim, C., & Kim, Y. (2014). Social media, network heterogeneity, and opinion polarization. Journal of communication, 64(4), 702-722.
Lee, P. S., So, C. Y., & Leung, L. (2015). Social media and Umbrella Movement: Insurgent public sphere in formation. Chinese Journal of Communication, 8(4), 356-375.
Lenzi, M., Vieno, A., Altoe, G., Scacchi, L., Perkins, D. D., Zukauskiene, R., & Santinello, M. (2015). Can Facebook informational use foster adolescent civic engagement?. American journal of community psychology, 55(3-4), 444-454.
Lev-On, A., & Manin, B. (2009). Happy accidents: Deliberation and online exposure to opposing views.
Lin, T. Y. (2014). Reflection on Media Social Responsibilities—Practice of New Media in the Sunflower Movement. Retrieved from http://ntujournal.blogspot.tw/2014/05/blog-post_1475.html
Lin, J. H. (2016). Differential gains in SNSs: effects of active vs. passive Facebook political participation on offline political participation and voting behavior among first-time and experienced voters. Asian Journal of Communication, 26(3), 278-297.
Liu, S. C & Su, Herng. (2017). Mediating the Sunflower Movement: Hybrid Media Networks in a Digital Age. Information Society Research, 33, 147-188.
Lupia, A., & Sin, G. (2003). Which public goods are endangered?: How evolving communication technologies affect the logic of collective action. Public Choice, 117(3), 315-331.
Lyons, B., & Henderson, K. (2005). Opinion leadership in a computer‐mediated environment. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 4(5), 319-329.
Macafee, T., & De Simone, J. J. (2012). Killing the bill online? Pathways to young people's protest engagement via social media. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(11), 579-584.
Marwell, G., & Oliver, P. (1993). The critical mass in collective action. Cambridge University Press.
Matthes, J. (2012). Exposure to counterattitudinal news coverage and the timing of voting decisions. Communication Research, 39(2), 147-169.
McClurg, S. D. (2003). Social networks and political participation: The role of social interaction in explaining political participation. Political research quarterly, 56(4), 449-464.
McQuail, D. (1983). Mass Communication Theory. London: Sage Publications
McLeod, J. M., Scheufele, D. A., Moy, P., Horowitz, E. M., Holbert, R. L., Zhang, W., ... & Zubric, J. (1999). Understanding deliberation: The effects of discussion networks on participation in a public forum. Communication Research, 26(6), 743-774.
Min, S. J., & Wohn, D. Y. (2018). All the News that You Don’t Like: Cross-cutting Exposure and Political Participation in the Age of Social Media. Computers in Human Behavior.
Mutz, D. C. (2002). The consequences of cross-cutting networks for political participation. American Journal of Political Science, 838-855.
Mutz, D. C. (2006). Hearing the other side: Deliberative versus participatory democracy. Cambridge University Press.
Nir, L. (2005). Ambivalent social networks and their consequences for participation. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 17(4), 422-442.
Nir, L. (2011). Disagreement and opposition in social networks: Does disagreement discourage turnout?. Political Studies, 59(3), 674-692.
Nisbet, M. C., & Kotcher, J. E. (2009). A two-step flow of influence? Opinion-leader campaigns on climate change. Science Communication, 30(3), 328-354.
Norris, P. (1996). Does television erode social capital? A reply to Putnam. PS: Political Science & Politics, 29(3), 474-480.
Nylander, S., & Larshammar, M. (2012). The phone as a tool for combining online and offline social activity–teenagers’ phone access to an online community. International Journal of Mobile Human-Computer Interaction, 4.
Park, C. S. (2013). Does Twitter motivate involvement in politics? Tweeting, opinion leadership, and political engagement. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1641-1648.
Park, C. S., & Kaye, B. K. (2017). The tweet goes on: Interconnection of Twitter opinion leadership, network size, and civic engagement. Computers in Human Behavior, 69, 174-180.
Pariser, E. (2011). The filter bubble: What the Internet is hiding from you. Penguin UK.
Pang, Y., & Miao, W. (2017). Network structural polarization of opinion leaders: The case of the Sina Microblog. Communication & Society, 42, 59–90.
Puig-i-Abril, E., & Rojas, H. (2007). Being early on the curve: Online practices and expressive political participation. International Journal of Internet Science, 2(1), 28-44.
Quintelier, E., Stolle, D., & Harell, A. (2012). Politics in peer groups: Exploring the causal relationship between network diversity and political participation. Political Research Quarterly, 65(4), 868-881.
Ritzer, G., & Jurgenson, N. (2010). Production, consumption, prosumption: The nature of capitalism in the age of the digital ‘prosumer’. Journal of consumer culture, 10(1), 13-36.
Robertson, S. P., Vatrapu, R. K., & Medina, R. (2010). Online video “friends” social networking: Overlapping online public spheres in the 2008 US presidential election. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 7(2-3), 182-201.
Rogers, E.M.(1983). Diffusion of innovations . New York:Free Press.
Rogers, E.M.(1995). Diffusion of innovations (4th ed.).New York:Free Press.
Rojas, H., & Puig‐i‐Abril, E. (2009). Mobilizers mobilized: Information, expression, mobilization and participation in the digital age. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 14(4), 902-927.
Rowen, I. (2015). Inside Taiwan's sunflower movement: Twenty-four days in a student-occupied parliament, and the future of the region. The Journal of Asian Studies, 74(1), 5-21.
Scheufele, D. A., Hardy, B. W., Brossard, D., Waismel‐Manor, I. S., & Nisbet, E. (2006). Democracy based on difference: Examining the links between structural heterogeneity, heterogeneity of discussion networks, and democratic citizenship. Journal of Communication, 56(4), 728-753.
Scheufele, D. A., & Shah, D. V. (2000). Personality strength and social capital: The role of dispositional and informational variables in the production of civic participation. Communication Research, 27(2), 107-131.
Shah, D. V., McLeod, J. M., & Yoon, S. H. (2001). Communication, context, and community: An exploration of print, broadcast, and Internet influences. Communication research, 28(4), 464-506.
Shachar, R., & Nalebuff, B. (1999). Follow the leader: Theory and evidence on political participation. American Economic Review, 525-547.
Shah, D. V., Cho, J., Eveland Jr, W. P., & Kwak, N. (2005). Information and expression in a digital age: Modeling Internet effects on civic participation. Communication research, 32(5), 531-565.
Shah, D. V., & Scheufele, D. A. (2006). Explicating opinion leadership: Nonpolitical dispositions, information consumption, and civic participation. Political Communication, 23(1), 1-22.
Shah, D. V., McLeod, D. M., Rojas, H., Cho, J., Wagner, M. W., & Friedland, L. A. (2017). Revising the communication mediation model for a new political communication ecology. Human Communication Research, 43(4), 491-504.
Shirky, C. (2011). The political power of social media: Technology, the public sphere, and political change. Foreign affairs, 28-41.
Shih . (2015, July). What Facebook Can Do? The Role of Polarization on Social Network Sites in Political Activities. Paper presented at 2015 Chinese Communication Society: It All Starts from Kaohsiung: New Media and Cross-cultural Imagination, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Skoric, M. M., Zhu, Q., Goh, D., & Pang, N. (2016). Social media and citizen engagement: A meta-analytic review. New Media & Society, 18(9), 1817-1839.
Sotirovic, M., & McLeod, J. M. (2001). Values, communication behavior, and political participation. Political Communication, 18, 273-300.
Statistic Brain. (2014). Facebook statistics. Retrieved from http://www.statisticbrain.com/facebook-statistics/
Stroud, N. J. (2008). Media use and political predispositions: Revisiting the concept of selective exposure. Political Behavior, 30(3), 341-366.
Su, H., & Chang, B. F. (2010). Blogs and campaign communication in the 2008 Presidential Election in Taiwan. Communication and Society, 11, 105–139.
Sunstein, C. R. (2001). Republic.com 2.0. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Tang, G., & Lee, F. L. (2013). Facebook use and political participation: The impact of exposure to shared political information, connections with public political actors, and network structural heterogeneity. Social Science Computer Review, 31(6), 763-773.
Taiwan Communication Survey. (2016). The 2015 Taiwan Communication Survey (Phase One, Year Four) : Political and Civic Communication. Retrieved from http://www.crctaiwan.nctu.edu.tw/AnnualSurvey_detail_e.asp?ASD_ID=24
Taiwan Think Tank. (2016). After the 2016 Presidential Election—Expectiontation Toward the New Government. Retrieved from https://www.taiwanthinktank.org/single-post/2016/01/21/2016%E7%B8%BD%E7%B5%B1%E5%A4%A7%E9%81%B8%E5%BE%8C%EF%BC%9A%E5%8F%B0%E7%81%A3%E6%B0%91%E7%9C%BE%E5%B0%8D%E6%96%B0%E6%94%BF%E5%B1%80%E7%9A%84%E6%9C%9F%E5%BE%85-%E6%B0%91%E8%AA%BF%E8%A8%98%E8%80%85%E6%9C%83
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. u: Worchel S. i Austin WG (ur.) Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago: Nelson Hall.
Tarrow, S. G. (2011). Power in movement: Social movements and contentious politics. Cambridge University Press.
Teorell, J., M. Torcal, and J. R. Montero. 2007. ‘‘Political Participation: Mapping the Terrain.’’ In Citizenship and Involvement in European Democracies: A Comparative Analysis, ed. Jan W. van Deth, Jose Ramon Montero, and Anders Westholm. London: Routledge, 334–57.
Theocharis, Y., & Lowe, W. (2016). Does Facebook increase political participation? Evidence from a field experiment. Information, Communication & Society, 19(10), 1465-1486.
Tilly, C. (2017). From mobilization to revolution. In Collective Violence, Contentious Politics, and Social Change (pp. 71-91). Routledge.
Toffler, A., & Alvin, T. (1981). The third wave (pp. 32-33). New York: Bantam books.
Turcotte, J., York, C., Irving, J., Scholl, R. M., & Pingree, R. J. (2015). News recommendations from social media opinion leaders: Effects on media trust and information seeking. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 20(5), 520-535.
TWNIC. (2017). A Survey on 2017 Taiwan Broadband Network Use. Retrieved from https://www.twnic.net.tw/download/200307/20170721e.pdf
Van Laer, J., & Van Aelst, P. (2010). Internet and social movement action repertoires: Opportunities and limitations. Information, Communication & Society, 13(8), 1146-1171.
Valenzuela, S., Kim, Y., & Gil de Zúñiga, H. (2011). Social networks that matter: Exploring the role of political discussion for online political participation. International journal of public opinion research, 24(2), 163-184.
Valenzuela, S., Arriagada, A., & Scherman, A. (2012). The social media basis of youth protest behavior: The case of Chile. Journal of Communication, 62(2), 299-314.
Valenzuela, S. (2013). Unpacking the use of social media for protest behavior: The roles of information, opinion expression, and activism. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(7), 920-942.
Verba, S., & Nie, N. H. (1972). Participation in America: Political democracy and social equality. NewYork, NY:Harper & Row.
Verba, S., Schlozman, K. L., & Brady, H. E. (1995). Voice and equality: Civic voluntarism in American politics. Harvard University Press.
Vitak, J., Zube, P., Smock, A., Carr, C. T., Ellison, N., & Lampe, C. (2011). It's complicated: Facebook users' political participation in the 2008 election. CyberPsychology, behavior, and social networking, 14(3), 107-114.Wang, S. I. (2006). The influence of the Internet on political attitudes and campaign participation in the 2004 Legislative Election. Taiwan Journal of Democracy, 3, 71–102.
Wang, T.L. (2013) Facebook Election? The influnece of Social Networking Sites on Political Participation during the 2012 Taiwan Presidential Election. Soochow Journal of Political Science, 31(1), 1-52
Wang, S. I. (2017). The Political Use of Social Media and Civic Engagement in Taiwan. Information Society Research, 32, 83-112.
We Are Social & Hootsuite. (2017). Digital In 2017: Global Overview. Retrieved from https://wearesocial.com/special-reports/digital-in-2017-global-overview
Weeks, B. E., Ardèvol-Abreu, A., & Gil de Zúñiga, H. (2017). Online influence? Social media use, opinion leadership, and political persuasion. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 29(2), 214-239.
Weimann, G. (1994). The influentials: People who influence people. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Williams, M. J., Cioroianu, I., & Williams, H. T. (2016, April). Different News for Different Views: Political News-Sharing Communities on Social Media Through the UK General Election in 2015. In News@ ICWSM.
Wilson, J. (1973). Introduction to social movements. Basic Books.
Wojcieszak, M. E., & Mutz, D. C. (2009). Online groups and political discourse: Do online discussion spaces facilitate exposure to political disagreement?. Journal of communication, 59(1), 40-56.
Woolley, J. K., Limperos, A. M., & Oliver, M. B. (2010). The 2008 presidential election, 2.0: A content analysis of user-generated political Facebook groups. Mass Communication and Society, 13(5), 631-652.
Xenos, M., & Moy, P. (2007). Direct and differential effects of the Internet on political and civic engagement. Journal of communication, 57(4), 704-718.
Xu, W. W., Sang, Y., Blasiola, S., & Park, H. W. (2014). Predicting opinion leaders in Twitter activism networks: The case of the Wisconsin recall election. American Behavioral Scientist, 58(10), 1278-1293.
Zhang, W., Johnson, T. J., Seltzer, T., & Bichard, S. L. (2010). The revolution will be networked: The influence of social networking sites on political attitudes and behavior. Social Science Computer Review, 28(1), 75-92.