The whole nature of productivity has changed irrevocably in the 1990s. The scope, the standards, and the rules (and systems) by which productivity is achieved all have shifted dramatically. The value and ethical implications are enormous. The "right" scope of the public sector is narrower; the general standards are tougher (sometimes substantially so); and allowable rules used for personnel systems, purchasing, and even organizational structures are tending heavily toward leanness and flexibility. These changes are difficult for managers who must adjust and exert leadership in an ambiguous environment and for employees who have broader responsibilities and often fewer resources and less support. Yet, these changes are likely to lead to reinvigorated systems and a better balance of values for the public sector in the long run.
Public Productivity & Management Review, Vol.22, No.3 , pp. 326-347