Recent discussions on the natural resource curse theory have expanded from looking at economic and sociopolitical developments to focusing on the impact of natural resources on the spread of, and deaths from, infectious diseases. However, consensus on a link between natural resources and infectious diseases rarely exists, and empirical results are mixed at best. This paper attempts to re-explore such a link by focusing on malaria, a major infectious disease. We argue thatin resource-rich countries the reluctance of governments to investin human capital, rampant corruption and weakened state capacity, and inferior hygiene conditions in mining and drilling areas lead to higher numbers of cases of malaria. To provide empirical support, we apply differentnatural resourcemeasures, and examine their impacts on the number of cases ofinfection and death from malaria for the period 2000–2014. Statistical results largely confirm our observations that natural resource abundance is positively associated with a higher number of incidences of and deaths from malaria. These results hold with alternative malaria and resource indicators, and model specifications. The results also have policy implications for malaria control, global public health, and natural resource management.