國立中學，是抗戰時期中等教育的一項特殊措施。它的重要意義不只在於它打破晚清以來「地方立中學，中央立大學」的制度慣例，更在於它是為收容戰時失學失業中等學校員生的重要機構。本文旨在探討國立中學於整個抗戰時期的發展歷程，以了解國立中學對戰時及戰後中華民國立中學等教育發展之影響。全文首先探討教育部設置國立中學的態度如何影響國立中學的產生，並從國立中學相關法令規章的頒行及內容，分析國立中學制度化初期的特徵及意義。之後論述國立中學在數量持續增長的情況下，其成立目的由單一走向多元的歷程，並嘗試從國立中學師範部及職業部的演變、公費與貸金制度及課程設置等面向，以了解教育部對維持國立中學校務運作的基本方針及其所具有的示範性特色。接著討論教育部如何擬定及執行國立中學復員計畫，最後於結論分析國立中學體制的形成與納入體制對中華民國教育發展之影響。 The establishment of National High Schools was a special policy of secondary education during the Anti-Japanese War period. The significance of this policy lies in that it not only broke the institutional tradition of “high schools set by local governments but universities established by central government” but also provided an important shelter for students and school staffs who were deprived of study or employment during wartime. The purposes of this study are to investigate the development of National High Schools throughout the Anti-Japanese War period, and explore the impact of National High Schools on development of secondary education during the War and after. How the Ministry of Education’s attitude affected the establishment of National High Schools in the beginning was analyzed, and then the promulgation and content of provisions about those to identify the characteristics and meanings of National High Schools during the early stage of institutionalization. Later, this study probes into how the single objective of National High Schools originally was evolved into multiple ones when the number of National High Schools increased gradually across the nation. This study attempts to delineate the Ministry of Education’s basic principles for maintaining the operation of National High Schools from a number of aspects of National High Schools, including evolution of the normal department and the vocational one, state student aid and loan schemes, and curriculum planning. Further, this study discusses how the Ministry of Education planned and implemented the demobilization of National High Schools after the end of the war. The conclusion of this study provides an analysis of the impact of the formation and normalization of the National High School system on subsequent development of education in Republic of China.