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    Title: 歐洲聯盟反恐政策之整合 : 以歐盟反恐協調員為例
    EU counter-terrorism policy: study of the counter-terrorism coordinator
    Authors: 黃筱雯
    Huang, Hsiao-Wen
    Contributors: 張台麟
    Chang, Tai-Lin
    黃筱雯
    Huang, Hsiao-Wen
    Keywords: 歐洲聯盟
    歐盟
    恐怖主義
    反恐
    歐盟反恐政策
    反恐協調員
    國際行為者
    European Union
    EU
    Terrorism
    Counter-terrorism
    EU Counter-terrorism strategy
    EU Counter-terrorism coordinator
    International actorness
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2019-02-12 15:56:03 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 自美國911恐怖主義攻擊事件發生後,歐洲聯盟(European Union,以下簡稱歐盟)開始積極注重恐怖主義的防治,推出各項反恐宣言和行動計畫,並設立不同的組織和機構推動反恐任務。歐盟之安全治理方式不同於一般國家,是由各會員國與反恐機構間以規範性原則進行反恐合作。面臨發生於歐洲國家內的恐怖攻擊事件時,歐盟成立不同工作小組和反恐單位機構,並以歐盟高峰會通過的宣言或原則為主軸,訂定相對應之反恐措施,由各會員國以國內立法方式施行。由於各會員國及對恐怖主義根源、定義、和反恐措施的認知不同,因應恐怖攻擊事件設立的數項反恐機構間的行政方式也不盡相同,故產生協調整合的職位需求,也因此歐盟在2004年的《打擊恐怖主義宣言》(Declaration on Combating Terrorism)中提出設立「歐盟反恐協調員」(EU Counter-terrorism Coordinator)職位的構想,希望藉由協調員協調歐盟內部反恐機構間的事務,並對外代表歐盟與第三國和國際組織進行合作。歐盟反恐協調員此一職位是基於歐盟反恐架構的多元行為者和彈性組織架構而產生的特殊職位。透過對歐盟反恐協調員一職的分析研究,可以協助瞭解歐盟反恐政策協調整合狀況以及協調員如何協調歐盟內部反恐機構、成員國和獨立機構間的合作,並與第三國和國際組織進行溝通協調。

    本研究以歐盟反恐協調員為核心議題,以歐盟反恐政策發展和法理基礎解釋歐盟反恐協調員職位的需求和起源,再藉由國際行為者分析框架分析反恐協調員定期提出的行動計畫和討論報告等官方文件,以及協調員公開言論等資料,輔以與其相關的具體行動記錄、媒體報導和學者意見,探討歐盟反恐協調員於反恐政策整合協調過程中扮演的角色及其成效評估。
    EU security governance is different from regular states, which different member states and institutions cooperate according to the normative principles. Since September 11 Attacks happened in the United States, European Union has start to put emphasis on countering terrorism, making many action plans and establishing counter-terrorism institutions. However, EU member states have different views of the concept of terrorism and combating measures, also, the administrative procedures are various in these states, thus generates the needs of political and institutional coordination. EU proposed to set up the positon of EU Counter-terrorism Coordinator (CTC) in Declaration on Combating Terrorism in 2004, in hope to coordinate EU counter-terrorism affairs and representing EU to cooperate with third countries or international organizations. Through the analysis of EU CTC, we can learn the coordination progress of EU counter-terrorism policy, and the role of CTC in the process of coordination among various counter-terrorism actors. First, this study would explain the development of EU counter-terrorism policy and the reason for the need of CTC. Next, this study would analyze the reports written by CTC and the meetings he participated by using international actorness analysis framework to evaluate his actions. In this way, we could understand whether CTC is the effective international actor who can represent EU to coordinate EU counter-terrorism institutions and cooperate with third countries and international organizations.
    Reference: 一、 中文部分
    (一) 專書
    王雲東,2011。《社會研究方法》。臺北:威仕曼。
    李格琴,2008。《歐盟安全機制:一種社會學視角的分析》。湖北:人民出版社。
    張台麟,2010。《里斯本條約下的歐盟統合願景:持續與轉變》。臺北:國立政治大學外國語文學院歐洲語文學程。
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    (二) 專書論文及期刊論文
    吳建輝,2012。〈刑事司法互助在歐洲聯盟法之發展〉,《司法新聲》,第103期,頁7-25。
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    張台麟,2010。〈歐洲聯盟推動共同反恐政策的發展與策略:兼論對台灣的影響與借鏡〉,張台麟主編,《里斯本條約下的歐盟統合願景:持續與轉變》。臺北市:國立政治大學外國語文學院歐洲語文學程。頁1-49。
    陳潔,2016/1。〈歐盟反恐戰略的發展與挑戰〉,《世界經濟與政治論壇》,第1期,頁64-79。
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    戴炳然,1998。〈評歐盟阿姆斯特丹條約〉,《歐洲研究》,第1期,頁53-60。

    (三) 研討會論文
    張福昌,2012。〈歐美本土恐怖主義的發展與因應策略〉,「第八屆恐怖主義與國家安全」學術研討會,桃園:中央警察大學大學恐怖主義研究中心。
    鍾志明,2017。〈歐盟難民危機與德國歐洲政策〉,「第十四屆全球戰略與台海安全學術」學術研討會,臺中:國立中興大學。


    二、 外文部分
    (一) 專書
    Argomaniz, Javier, 2011. Post-9/11 European Union Counter-terrorism: Politics, Polity and Policies. London: Routledge.
    Argomaniz, Javier, Oldřich Bureš, and Christian Kaunert, 2017. EU Counter-terrorism and Intelligence: A Critical Assessment. London: Routledge.
    Baker-Beall, Christopher, 2016. The European Union’s Fight Against Terrorism: Discourse, Policies, Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Benyon, John, Lynne Turnbull, Andrew Willis, Rachel Woodward and Adrian Beck, 1994. Police Co-Operation in Europe: an Investigation. Leicester: University of Leicester, Centre for the Study of Public Order.
    Bretherton, Charlotte, and John Vogler, 2005. The European Union as a Global Actor. Oxford: Taylor & Francis.
    Bureš, Oldřich, 2011. EU Counterterrorism Policy: A Paper Tiger? London: Ashgate.
    Christian Kaunert, 2011. European Internal Security-Towards Supranational Governance in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice? Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Cottey, Andrew, 2012. Security in 21st Century Europe. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Didier, Bigo, and Elspeth Guild, 2015. The EU Counter-Terrorism Policy Responses to the Attacks in Paris. Towards an EU Security and Liberty Agenda. Brussel: CEPS.
    Doody, Josephine and Fiona De Londras, 2015. The Impact, Legitimacy and Effectiveness of EU Counter-Terrorism. London: Routledge.

    Fijnaut, Cyrille JCF, 1993. Internationalization of Police Co-Operation in Western Europe. Berlin: Springer.
    Hebenton, Bill, and Terry Thomas, 1995. Policing Europe: Co-Operation, Conflict, and Control. London: Macmillan Basingstoke.
    Keohane, Daniel, 2005. The EU and Counter-Terrorism. London: Centre for European Reform.
    Kaunert, Christian, 2011. European Internal Security-Towards Supranational Governance in The Area of Freedom, Security and Justice? Manchester : Manchester University Press.
    Kaunert, Christian, and Sarah Léonard, 2013. European Security, Terrorism and Intelligence: Tackling New Security Challenges in Europe. Berlin: Springer.
    Kaunert, Christian, John Occhipinti, and Sarah Léonard, 2016. Supranational Governance of Europe’s Area of Freedom, Security and Justice. London: Routledge.
    O’Neill, Maria, 2011. The Evolving EU Counter-Terrorism Legal Framework. London: Routledge.
    Martins, Bruno Oliveira, and Monika Ziegler, 2018. Counter-Radicalization as Counter-Terrorism: The European Union Case, Expressions of Radicalization. Berlin: Springer.
    Sjöstedt, Gunnar. 1977. The External Role of the European Community. York: Saxon House.
    Spence, David, 2007. The European Union and Terrorism. London: John Harper Publishing.
    Van Leeuwen, Marianne, 2003. Confronting Terrorism: European Experiences, Threat Perceptions, and Policies. Vol. 56. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff.

    (二) 專書論文和期刊論文
    Argomaniz, Javier, 2009. “Post-9/11 Institutionalisation of European Union Counter-Terrorism: Emergence, Acceleration And Inertia,” European Security, Vol. 18, No. 2. pp. 151-172.
    Argomaniz, Javier, 2010. “Before and after Lisbon: Legal Implementation as the ‘Achilles Heel’in EU Counter-Terrorism?,” European security, Vol. 19, No. 2. pp. 297-316.
    Brattberg, Erik, and Mark Rhinard, 2012. “The EU as a Global Counter-Terrorism Actor in the Making,” European Security, Vol. 21, No. 4. pp. 557-577.
    Brunnée, Jutta, and Stephen J Toope, 2000. “International Law and Constructivism: Elements of an Interactional Theory of International Law,” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 39. pp. 19-74.
    Chalk, Peter, 2000. “The Third Pillar on Judicial and Home Affairs Cooperation, Anti-Terrorist Collaboration and Liberal Democratic Acceptability,” in Fernando Reinares: European Democracies Against Terrorism. Governmental Policies and Intergovernmental Cooperation. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing. pp. 227-243.
    Coolsaet, Rik, 2010. “EU Counterterrorism Strategy: Value Added or Chimera?,” International Affairs, Vol. 86, No. 4. pp. 857-873.
    Den Boer, Monica, and Jörg Monar, 2002. “Keynote Article: 11 September and the Challenge of Global Terrorism to the EU as a Security Actor,” JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 40, No. s1. pp. 11-28.
    Den Boer, Monica and Irina Wiegand, 2015. “From Convergence to Deep Integration: Evaluating the Impact of EU Counter-Terrorism Strategies on Domestic Arenas,” Intelligence and National Security, Vol. 30, No. 2-3. pp. 377-401.
    Deflem, Mathieu, 2006. “Europol and the Policing of International Terrorism: Counter‐Terrorism in a Global Perspective,” Justice Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 3. pp. 336-359.
    Ferreira-Pereira, Laura C. and Oliveira Bruno Martins, 2012. “The External Dimension of the European Union’s Counter-Terrorism: an Introduction to Empirical and Theoretical Developments,” European Security, Vol. 21, No. 4. pp. 459-473.
    Groenleer, Martijn LP, and Louise G. Van Schaik, 2007. “United We Stand? The European Union’s International Actorness in the Cases of the International Criminal Court and the Kyoto Protocol,” JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 45, No. 5. pp. 969-998.
    Jupille, Joseph, and James A Caporaso, 1998. “States, Agency, and Rules: the European Union in Global Environmental Politics,” The European Union in the World Community, Vol. 17. pp. 157-182.
    Lodge, Juliet, 1989. “Terrorism and the European Community: Towards 1992,” Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 1, No. 1. pp. 28-47.
    Mackenzie, Alex, Oldřich Bureš, Christian Kaunert and Sarah Léonard, 2013. “The European Union Counter-terrorism Coordinator and the External Dimension of the European Union Counter-terrorism Policy,” Perspectives on European Politics & Society, Vol. 14, No. 3. pp. 325-338.
    Monar, Jörg, 2007. “Common Threat and Common Response? The European Union’s Counter‐Terrorism Strategy and its Problems,” Government and opposition, Vol. 42, No. 3. pp. 292-313.
    Monar, Jörg, 2015. “The EU as an International Counter-terrorism Actor: Progress and Constraints,” Intelligence and National Security, Vol. 30, No. 2-3. pp. 333-356.
    Moravcsik, Andrew, and Kalypso Nicolaïdis, 1999. “Explaining the Treaty of Amsterdam: Interests, Influence, Institutions,” JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 37, No. 1. pp. 59-85.
    Rhinard, Mark, Arjen Boin, and Magnus Ekengren, 2007.”Managing terrorism: Institutional capacities and counter-terrorism policy in the EU,” The European Union And Terrorism. pp. 88-104.
    Sarah Léonard, 2017. “Border Controls as a Dimension of the European Union’s Counter-Terrorism Policy: A Critical Assessment ” in Javier Argomaniz eds., EU Counter-Terrorism and Intelligence: A Critical Assessment London: Routledge. pp. 115-165.
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    Zimmermann, Doron, 2006. “The European Union and Post-9/11 Counterterrorism: A Reappraisal,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, Vol. 29, No. 2. pp. 123-145.

    (三) 學位論文
    Argomaniz, Javier, 2008. Counter-Terrorism Policy-Making in the EU, Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Politics & International Relations, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.

    (四) 官方文件
    Council of the European Union, 1999/10/16. Tampere European Council 15 And 16 October 1999 Presidency Conclusions.
    Council of the European Union, 2003/12/12. A Secure Europe In A Better World.
    Council of the European Union, 2004/03/25. Declaration on Combating Terrorism, 7906/04.
    Council of the European Union, 2005/11/30. The European Union Counter-Terrorism Strategy, 14469/4/05.
    Council of the European Union, 2005/12/15. EU Action Plan on Combating Terrorism, 15358/1/05.
    Council of the European Union, 2007/05/21. Implementation of the Strategy and Action Plan to Combat Terrorism, 9666/07.
    Council of the European Union, 2009/11/09. EU Counter-Terrorism Strategy—Discussion Paper, 15359/09.
    Council of European Union, 2010/03/08. Draft Internal Security Strategy for the European Union: Towards a European Security Model, 7210/10.
    Council of the European Union, 2011/07/04. JHA External Relations—Trio Programme, 12004/11.
    Council of European Union, 2011/01/17. EU Action Plan on Combating Terrorism, 15893/1/10.
    Council of European Union, 2011/06/06. Draft Council Conclusions on Enhancing the Links between Internal and External Aspects of Counter-Terrorism, 11075/11.
    Council of European Union, 2011/12/09. EU Action Plan on Combating Terrorism, 17594/1/11.
    Council of the European Union, 2012/05/23. EU Counter-Terrorism Strategy—Discussion Paper, 9990/12.
    Council of the European Union, 2012/11/23. Annual report on the Implementation of the EU Counter-Terrorism Strategy, 16471/12.
    Council of the European Union, European, 2014/06/27. Council 26/27 June 2014 Conclusions, EUCO 79/14.
    Council of the European Union. 2014/10/10. Report on the Implementation of the EU Counter-Terrorism Strategy, 13971/14.
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    Council of the European Union, 2017/06/02. Taking forward the Strategic Agenda 18-month Programme of the Council, 9934/17.
    European Commission Secretary General, 2004/03/29. Javier Solana, EU High Representative for the CFSP, to Meet with Gijs de Vries, Counter-Terrorism Coordinator Brussels, S0087/04.
    European Commission Secretary General, 2007/09/19. Javier Solana, EU High Representative for the CFSP, Appoints Mr Gilles de Kerchove as EU Counter-Terrorism Coordinator, S256/07.
    European Council, 2002/06/13. Council Framework Decision, 2002/475/JHA.
    European Commission, 2010/07/20. The EU Counter-Terrorism: Main Achievements and Future Challenges, COM (2010), 673 Final.
    European Commission, 2016/08/02. President Juncker's mission letter to Julian King.
    European Council, 2010/05/04. “The Stockholm Programme-an Open and Secure Europe Serving and Protecting the Citizens”, Official Journal, C 115 of 4.5.2010.
    Europol, 2016. EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (Te-Sat).

    (五) 研究報告
    Bąkowski, Piotr, and Laura Puccio, 2015. Briefing: Foreign Fighters: Member States’ Responses and EU Action In An International Context. European Parliamentary Research Service.
    Heiner Busch and Matthias Monroy, 2017/05/16. “Who drives EU counter-terrorism? On the legislation of the European Union,” State Watch, Retrived April 15, 2018, from: https://digit.site36.net/2017/05/16/who-drives-eu-counter-terrorism-on-the-legislation-of-the-european-union/
    John Howell & Co., 2007/02/01. Independent Scrutiny: The EU’s Efforts in the Fight against Terrorist Financing in the Context of the Financial Action Task Force’s Nine Special Recommendations and the EU Counter Terrorist Financing Strategy. Brussel: European Commission.
    Den Boer, Monica , 2003. “9/11 and the Europeanisation of anti-terrorism policy: A critical assessment,” Notre Europe Policy Paers No. 6, Retrived April 15, 2018, from: http://ftp.infoeuropa.eurocid.pt/files/database/000005001-000010000/000007639.pdf

    (六) 新聞報導
    Anthony Browne and Rory Watson, 2004/03/17. “EU Divided Over Proposal for New Anti-Terror Czar,” The Times, Retrived June 6, 2018, from: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/eu-divided-over-proposal-for-new-anti-terror-czar-wcbzfvptqdn
    “Algeria’s Immense Experience in the Fight Against Terrorism Highlighted by the EU,” 2018/07/16. Algeria Press Service, Retrived April 21, 2018, from: http://www.aps.dz/algerie/76324-l-immense-experience-de-l-algerie-en-matiere-de-lutte-contre-le-terrorisme-mise-en-exergue-par-l-ue
    “EU Internet Forum: Progress on Removal of Terrorist Content Online,” 2017/03/10. European Commission Press Release, Retrived June 6, 2018, from: https://www.parlementairemonitor.nl/9353000/1/j9vvij5epmj1ey0/vkcehjjzddz8?ctx=vg9pj7ufwbwe&tab=1&start_tab0=420
    “EU and Middle East and North Africa Join Forces in Beirut to Prevent and Counter Violent Extremism,” 2018/01/18. Delegation of the European Union to Lebanon Press Release, Retrived April 22, 2018, from: https://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/lebanon/38415/eu-and-middle-east-and-north-africa-join-forces-beirut-prevent-and-counter-violent-extremism_en
    “European Union, United Nations to Strengthen Partnership on Counter-Terrorism,” 2018/05/25. United Nations Press Release, Retrived May 11, 2018, from: https://www.un.org/press/en/2018/pa26.doc.htm
    “EU and Middle East and North Africa Join Forces in Beirut to Prevent and Counter Violent Extremism,” 2018/01/18. Delegation of the European Union to Lebanon Press Release, Retrived March 8, 2018, from: https://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/lebanon/38415/eu-and-middle-east-and-north-africa-join-forces-beirut-prevent-and-counter-violent-extremism_en
    “Europol’s Internet Referral Unit to Combat Terrorist and Violent Extremist Propaganda,” 2015/0701. Europol Press Release, Retrived April 2, 2018, from: https://www.europol.europa.eu/newsroom/news/europol%E2%80%99s-internet-referral-unit-to-combat-terrorist-and-violent-extremist-propaganda
    “High-Level EU Delegation Participated in International Conference on Countering Terrorism and Preventing Violent Extremism in Dushanbe,” 2018/05/05. Delegation of the European Union to Lebanon Press Release, Retrived April 29, 2018, from: https://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/lebanon/44034/high-level-eu-delegation-participated-international-conference-countering-terrorism-and_en
    “High-level EU visit to Skopje on European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP),Counterterrorism (CT) and Prevention of Radicalization,” 2018/03/15. Delegation of the European Union to Lebanon, Retrived April 29, 2018, from: https://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/lebanon/41406/high-level-eu-visit-skopje-european-security-and-defence-policy-esdp-counterterrorism-ct-and_en
    Hugh Muir and Rosie Cowan, 2005/07/08. “Four Bombs in 50 Minutes - Britain Suffers its Worst-Ever Terror Attack,” The Guardian, Retrived May 19, 2018, from: https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/jul/08/terrorism.july74
    “Remarks by High Representative/Vice-President Federica Mogherini at the press conference after the Foreign Affairs Council,” 2015/01/19. European Union External Action, Retrived May12, 2018, from: https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-Homepage/6177/node/6177_sv
    “Timeline: Madrid Investigation,” 2004/04/28. BBC News, Retrived June 9, 2018, from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/guides/457000/457031/html/

    (七) 網路資料
    Council of the European Union, 2018. “Counter-Terrorism Coordinator,” European Council: Council of the European Union, <https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/fight-against-terrorism/counter-terrorism-coordinator/>, 2018/11/8.
    Gijs de Vries, “Seminar on EU Cooperation in Preparing for Attacks with CBRN-agents,” 2004/07/07. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Hague, <https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/uedocs/cmsup-load/Hague7July2004.pdf/>
    Gijs de Vries, “European Union Counter-Terrorism Coordinator, to the Hearing by the Subcommittee on Europe of the Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives,” 2004/09/14. Washington D.C. <https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/uedocs/cmsup-load/washingtonseptember14.2004.pdf/>
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    外交學系
    1042530152
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1042530152
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/THE.NCCU.DIP.004.2019.F09
    Appears in Collections:[外交學系] 學位論文

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