Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Ant Forest—A Green Movement Led by Private Sectors and Driven by Community Currency Mechanism
Lin, Scott Y.
Personal carbon trading
Chinese environmental governance
Chinese private sector
|Issue Date: ||2019-02-12 16:02:46 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||Recently, China's green policy has started shifting its emphasis to private capital, and personal carbon trading (PCT) scheme has been introduced in China's environmental governance framework. Ant Forest refers to one of the Chinese practical PCT examples initiated by the private sector. The implication of this case can be associated with the concept of Community Currencies (CCs) according to their internal logic. Accordingly, this study explored the consequences of Ant Forest for Chinese environmental governance mechanism from the CCs view, assuming that Ant Forest is a type of CCs mechanism. In the present study, how Ant Forest participates, integrates and even innovates the mechanism of environmental governance in China was primarily discussed.|
From the perspective of ‘new economics’ on sustainable consumption, a multi-criteria qualitative evaluation tool with five indicators was adapted for the case analysis. Subsequently, a comparison between Ant Forest and the other two similar cases — ‘Nu-Spaarpas (NU)’ and ‘Norfolk Island Carbon and Health Evaluation (NICHE)’ is to be drawn. The findings show that the mechanism design of Ant Forest can facilitate local economic cycle, cultivate environmental awareness of citizens, create community interaction and pool social capital. A “bottom-up” structure appeared to be formed in the case of Ant Forest. The study also points to potential concerns and problems of the case.
|Reference: ||Ant Financial Services Group. 2016. "Ant Financial 2016 Sustainability Report." https://os.alipayobjects.com/rmsportal/omkAQCxPyHDDqtqBDnlh.pdf (Accessed on September 20 , 2018).|
Baccini, A, Walker, W, Carvalho, L, Farina, M, Sulla-Menashe, D, & Houghton, RA. 2017. "Tropical Forests are Net Carbon Source Based on Aboveground Measurements of Gain and Loss." Science, 358(6360), 230-234.
Bai, Xuemei. 2007. "Integrating Global Environmental Concerns into Urban Management: The Scale and Readiness Arguments." Journal of Industrial Ecology, 11(2), 15-29.
Bank, European Central. 2012. "Virtual Currency Schemes." https://www.ecb.europa.eu/pub/pdf/other/virtualcurrencyschemes201210en.pdf (Accessed on Ocrober 15, 2018).
Blanc, Jérôme. 2011. "Classifying" CCs": Community, Complementary and Local Currencies' Types and Generations." International Journal of Community Currency Research, 15(D), 4-10.
Blanc, Jérôme, & Fare, Marie. 2013. "Understanding the Role of Governments and Administrations in the Implementation of Community and Complementary Currencies." Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 84(1), 63-81.
C-C.info. 2013a. "Complementary Currency." http://community-currency.info/en/glossary/complementary-currency/ (Accessed on November 10, 2018).
C-C.info. 2013b. "LETS." http://community-currency.info/en/glossary/lets/ (Accessed on November 10, 2018).
C-C.info. 2013c. "Nu Spaarpas." http://community-currency.info/en/currencies/nu-spaarpas/ (Accessed on November 10, 2018).
C-C.info. 2013d. "Timebanking." http://community-currency.info/en/glossary/timebanks/ (Accessed on November 10, 2018).
C-C.info. 2014. "Ithaca Hours." http://community-currency.info/en/currencies/ithaca-hours/ (Accessed on November 10, 2018).
Cann, Cynthia W., Michael C. Cann, and Gao, Shangquan. 2005. “China’s Road to Sustainable Development: An Overview.” In China’s Environment and the Challenge of Sustainable Development, ed. Kristen A. Day. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. Pp. 3-34.
Carbonstop Co. 2018a. "Green Community – A Reflection on How Community Green Culture Service Platform promotes the Low-Carbon Development of Cities." http://www.carbonstop.net/oridetail18/ (Accessed on Ocrober 25, 2018).
Carbonstop Co. 2018b. "My Carbon Account." http://www.carbonstop.net/oridetail17/ (Accessed on Ocrober 25, 2018).
Chen, Gang. (2009). Politics of China’s Environmental Protection. Hackensack, N.J: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Economy, Elizabeth. 2005. "Environmental Enforcement in China." In China’s Environment and the Challenge of Sustainable Development, ed. Kristen A. Day. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. Pp. 102-120.
Environomist Ltd. 2017. "China Carbon Market Research Report 2017." http://www.cn.undp.org/content/china/en/home/presscenter/articles/2017/02/17/the-launch-of-the-environomist-2017-carbon-market-research-report.html (Accessed on September 20 , 2018).
Falkner, Robert. 2003. "Private Environmental Governance and International Relations: Exploring the Links." Global Environmental Politics, 3(2), 72-87.
Fare, Marie, & Ahmed, Pepita Ould. 2017. "Complementary Currency Systems and Their Ability to Support Economic and Social Changes." Development and Change, 48(5), 847-872.
Fawcett, Tina. 2012. "Personal Carbon Trading: Is Now the Right Time?" Carbon Management, 3(3), 283-291.
Fontinelle, Amy 2011. "An Introduction To Complementary Currencies." https://www.investopedia.com/articles/economics/11/introduction-complementary-currencies.asp (Accessed on October 10 , 2018).
Harriet, Bulkeley. 2005. "Reconfiguring Environmental Governance: Towards a Politics of Scales and Networks." Political Geography, 24(8), 875-902.
Helleiner, Eric. 2000. "Think Globally, Transact Locally: Green Political Economy and the Local Currency Movement." Global Society, 14(1), 35-51.
Hendry, Alex, Webb, Gary, Wilson, Alicia, Armstrong, Bruce, Smart, William, & Egger, Garry. 2015. "Influences on Intentions to Use a Personal Carbon Trading System (NICHE-The Norfolk Island Carbon Health Evaluation Project)." International Technology Management Review, 5(2), 105.
Lietaer, Bernard, & Hallsmith, Gwendolyn. 2006. "Community Currency Guide." Global Community Initiatives, 1-32.
Lietaer, Bernard, Ulanowicz, Robert, & Goerner, Sally. 2009. "Options for Managing a Systemic Bank Crisis." SAPI EN. S. Surveys and Perspectives Integrating Environment and Society, 2(2.1).
Lin, Scott Y. 2017. "State Capitalism and Chinese Food Security Governance." Japanese Journal of Political Science, 18(1), 106-138.
Michel, A., & Hudon, M. 2015. "Community Currencies and Sustainable Development: A Systematic review." Ecological Economics, 116, 160-171.
Morton, Katherine. 2005. International Aid and China’s Environment: Taming the Yellow Dragon. New York, NY: Routledge. Chapter 4: Managing the Environment with a Human Face: the UNDP Approach. Pp. 85-119.
Morton, Katherine. 2005. International Aid and China’s Environment: Taming the Yellow Dragon. New York, NY: Routledge. Chapter 5: Creating Incentives and Institutions: the World Bank Approach. Pp. 120-157.
Newell, Peter. 2001a. "Campaigning for Corporate Change: Global Citizen Action on the Environment." Global Citizen Action, 189-201.
Newell, Peter. 2001b. "Environmental NGOs, TNCs, and The Question of Governance." In The International Political Economy of the Environment: Critical Perspectives, eds. Dimitris Stevis, Valerie J. Assetto. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Pp. 85-107.
Pandaily. 2018. "A Green Movement With 300 Million Participants and 13 Million Trees." https://pandaily.com/ant-forest-allowed-more-than-a-quarter-of-chinese-netizens-to-participate-in-charity-programs-through-the-mobile-internet/ (Accessed on September 25 , 2018).
Reed, Maureen G, & Bruyneel, Shannon. 2010. "Rescaling Environmental Governance, Rethinking the State: A Three-Dimensional Review." Progress in Human Geography, 34(5), 646-653.
Retail Banker International. 2018. "Ant Financial, bKash Partner to Promote Financial Inclusion in Bangladesh." https://www.verdict.co.uk/retail-banker-international/news/ant-financial-bkash-partner-promote-financial-inclusion-bangladesh/ (Accessed on October 12 , 2018).
Seyfang, G., & Longhurst, N. 2013. "Growing Green Money? Mapping Community Currencies for Sustainable Development." Ecological Economics, 86, 65-77.
Seyfang, Gill. 1997. "Examining Local Currency Systems: A Social Audit Approach." International Journal of Community Currency Research Vol 1, 1-29.
Seyfang, Gill. 2002. "Tackling Social Exclusion With Community Currencies: Learning From LETS to Time Banks." International Journal of Community Currency Research, 6, 1-11.
Seyfang, Gill. 2006. "Sustainable Consumption, the New Economics and Community Currencies: Developing New Institutions for Environmental Governance." Regional Studies, 40(7), 781-791.
Seyfang, Gill. (2007). “Personal Carbon Trading: Lessons From Complementary Currencies.” Working Paper of the Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment (CSERGE), University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. http://base.socioeco.org/docs/doc-7626_en.pdf (Accessed on October 12 , 2018).
Seyfang, Gill. 2009a. "Low-Carbon Currencies: The Potential of Time Banking and Local Money Systems for Community Carbon-Reduction." Working Paper-Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment (1), 1-15.
Seyfang, Gill. 2009b. The New Economics of Sustainable Consumption: Seeds of Change. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Seyfang, Gill, & Haxeltine, Alex. 2012. "Growing Grassroots Innovations: Exploring the Role of Community-Based Initiatives in Governing Sustainable Energy Transitions." Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 30(3), 381-400.
Shapiro, Judith. 2001. Mao’s War against Nature: Politics and the Environment in Revolutionary China. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Van Sambeek, Paul, & Kampers, Edgar. 2004. "NU-Spaarpas: The Sustainable Incentive Card." http://www.qoin.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Book-NU-spaarpas-UK-def1.pdf (Accessed on November 05, 2018).
貝多廣 & 羅煜，2013，〈補充性貨幣的理論、最新發展及對法定貨幣的挑戰〉，《經濟學動態》，09：4-10。Bei, Duo-Guang, & Luo, Yu. 2013. “Buchongxing huobi de lilun, zuixin fazhan ji duifadinghuobi de tiaozhan” [Complementary Currency’s Theory, Recent Developments, and Its Challenges to Fiat Currency ]. Economic Perspectives 09: 4-10.
陳小燕，2017，〈‘互聯網+’背景下螞蟻森林的實施現狀與問題分析〉，《現代商貿工業》，21：48-49。Chen, Xiao-Yan. 2017. “‘Hulianwang+’ beijingxia mayisenlin de shishixianzhuang yu wentifenxi” [Implementation Status and Problem Analysis of Ant Forest Under the Background of Internet-Plus]. Modern Business Trade Industry 21: 48-49.
胡勝，侯海龍， & 李劍，2017，〈關於支付寶運營模式中螞蟻森林發展趨勢及前景研究〉，《西部皮革》，40(22)：75 -78。Hu, Sheng, Hou, Hai-Long, & Li, Jian. 2017. “Guanyu zhifubao yunyingmoshi zhong mayisenlin fazhanqushi ji qianjingyanjiu” [A Study on the Development Trend and Prospect of Ant Forest in the Operation mode of Alipay]. West Leather 40(22): 75-78.
胡霜，2018，〈線上公益對青年行爲方式與價值觀的影響——以螞蟻森林爲例〉，《科教導刊》，05：148-149。Hu, Shuang. 2018. “Xianshanggongyi dui qingnianxingweifangshi yu jiazhiguan de yingxiang— Yi mayisenlin weili” [The Influence of Online Public Welfare on the Behavior and Values of Young People — A Case Study of Ant Forest]. The Guide of Science & Education 05: 148-149.
胡怡 & 張雪媚，2018，〈互聯網時代環境傳播的游戲化創新策略——以“螞蟻森林”爲例〉，《新聞愛好者》，02：74-77。Hu, Yi, & Zhang, Xue-Mei. 2018. “Hulianwangshidai huanjingchuanbo de youxihuachuangxincelue—Yi mayisenlin weili” [Gamification Innovation Strategy of Environmental Communication in the Internet Era – Taking Ant Forest as an Example]. Journalism Lover 02: 74-77.
王大慶，2017，〈探析互聯網公益項目的傳播特徵——以“螞蟻森林”爲例〉，《新聞研究導刊》，23：96-97。Wang, Da-Qing. 2017. “Tanxi hulianwang gongyixiangmu de chuanbotezheng—Yi mayisenlin weili” [Analyze the Communication Characteristics of Internet Public Welfare Projects – Taking Ant Forest as an Example]. Journal of News Research 23: 96-97.
熊惠平，2009，〈補充貨幣、社區貨幣及其試運行的路徑〉，《廣東經濟》，12：41-44。Xiong, Hui-Ping. 2009. “Buchonghuobi, Shequhuobi ji qishiyunxing de lujing” [Supplementary Currency, Community Currency and Its Trial Run Path]. Guangdong Economy 12: 41-44.
陰麗佳，貟曉哲 & 劉瑩瑩，2017，〈綠色金融産品消費者使用意願研究——以支付寶螞蟻森林爲例〉，《當代經濟》，28：20-23。Yin, Li-Jia, Yun, Xiao-Zhe & Liu, Ying-Ying. 2017. “Lvsejinrong chanpin xiaofeizhe shiyongyiyuan diaocha—Yi zhifubaomayisenlin weili” [Study on Consumers' Willingness to Use Green Financial Products – Taking Ant Forest as an Example]. Contemporary Economics 28: 20-23.
殷劍峰 & 王增武，2016，〈中國的綠色金融之路〉，《經濟社會體制比較》，06：43-50。Yin, Jian-Feng & Wang, Zeng-Wu. 2016. “Zhongguo lvsejinrong zhilu” [China's Path to Green Finance]. Comparative Economic & Social Systems 06: 43-50.
張琰 & 周笑霞，2017，〈綠色數字金融撬動環保企業發展——以螞蟻金服爲例〉，《北方經貿》，08：92-93。Zhang, Yan & Zhou, Xiao-Xia. 2017. “Lvseshuzijinrong qiaodong huanbaoqiyefazhan” [Green Digital Finance Promotes the Development of Environmental Protection Enterprises – Taking Ant Financial as an Example]. Northern Economy and Trade 08: 92-93.
|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0105266012|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[應用經濟與社會發展英語碩士學位學程 (IMES) ] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.