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    Title: 世代分配的生命歷程經驗─兩個年輪的比較
    A Life Course Perspective on Generational Distribution -- Comparison of Two Generations
    Authors: 吳永明
    Contributors: 陳信木
    Keywords: 生命歷程
    Life course
    Generational comparison
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2019-04-01 15:05:12 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本論文以世代與生命歷程之觀點探討1960年輪與1990年輪於生命歷程中所經驗到的人口現象、人口結構與人口依賴比的變化,以及在教育與經濟經驗、消費等行為與結果的差異,以此討論世代之間的分配問題。研究發現從生命歷程的觀點來看,1960年輪與1990年輪的生命歷程的經驗確實大異其趣。1960年輪出生於總生育率相對較高的年代,1990年輪則出生在總生育率較低的年代,從人口依賴的角度來看,1960年輪在其約58歲時面臨到人口依賴開始持續上揚的狀況,1990年輪,則是在其約28歲時面臨此情境。
    在勞動參與方面,1960年輪的男性勞動參與率在24歲到50歲間都接近九成,然而女性的勞動參與率則不到六成, 1990年輪的男性與女性勞動參與率則明顯相近,在25歲後兩性的勞參與都將近9成。對於1990年輪說,在其30歲以下時,就要面對經濟的困境,在30歲以下時,1960年輪失業率甚低,1990年輪則都比1960年輪來的高,但是對於1960年輪而言,在其40歲之後,失業率則開始增加,造成中高齡失業的問題。
    This thesis explores the changes in demographics, population dependency ratios and behaviors and outcomes in education and labor participatation, consumption experienced in the 1960 and 1990 generations from the perspective of generations and life course. The study found that from the point of view of life history, the experience of the life course of the 1960 generation and the 1990 generation is indeed quite different. The 1960 generation was born in a relatively high total fertility rate. The 1990 generation was born in a period of low total fertility. From the perspective of population dependence, the generations in 1960 faced population dependence when they were about 58 years old. The situation of continued upswing, the 1990 generation, faced this situation when it was about 28 years old.
    As far as the resources obtained, with the expansion and investment of education, the 1990 generations are much higher than the education funds obtained in the 1960 generation. Not only did public sector education spending increase, but parents of the 1990 generation also increased their educational investment. The education level of the 1960 generations was mostly graduated from higher vocational colleges. The number of college graduates was quite rare. The 1990 gernration , more than 50% of the generations graduated frome colleges and universities, showing that the expansion of higher education actually improved the human capital of the younger generation.
    In terms of labor participation, the male labor participation rate of the 1960 generation was close to 90% between the ages of 24 and 50. However, the labor participation rate of women was less than 60%. For the 1990 generation , the male and female labor participation rates were similar. After the age of 25, the participation of both sexes is nearly 90%. For the 1990 generation , when they were under 30, they had to face economic difficulties. Under the age of 30, the unemployment rate in the 1960 generation was very low, by contrast , the 1990 generations were higher than those in the 1960 generation , but for the 1960 generation, after the age of 40, the unemployment rate began to increase, causing problems of middle-aged unemployment.
    If the amount of consumption and income represents the level of living, the national transfer account data is used to estimate the consumption and income of the two generations. From the perspective of income, each generation has increased compared with the income of the previous generation. One of the factors may be the higher labor participation rate of the youth generation as a whole. As far as consumption is concerned, it is also higher than that of the previous generation. Therefore, the income and consumption levels of the 1960 generation are lower than those of the 1990 generation . As for the age at which the income is insufficient to cover consumption, this part of the expenditure was transferred from the family. The difference between the consumption and income gap was small in 1981, but it was larger in 2015. Comparing the total population consumption and income of the two generations, we found that the parenting costs for the 1960 generation were lower than those of the 1990 generation.
    We found that although the 1990 generation faced a less friendly economic environment as it entered the workplace, from other sources, the resources acquired by the 1990s have increased dramatically compared to the 1960 generation , representing the growth environment of the 1990 generation is superior to the 1960 generation.
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    Description: 博士
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0982545021
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/DIS.NCCU.SOC.001.2019.F04
    Appears in Collections:[Department of Sociology] Theses

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