Using survey method, this study compares the relative importance of exposure to Chinese media, pro-China local media, pro-democracy local media, and new media (e.g., Weibo, Facebook) on the building of national identity among Macau college students. We argue that the effect of media exposure on national identity formation is not uniform, owing to the political leanings of the media and the platform on which the information is transmitted (new media vs. traditional media). We find that getting news about China on Facebook is the most important predictor of the formation of national identity among college youth in Macau, followed by getting news on Weibo and exposure to traditional Chinese media. Conversely, exposure to pro-democracy local media and frequent use of Facebook exert a negative effect on national identity building among college youth in Macau. Positive sentiment toward China and trust in the central government act as mediators and fully explain the relationship between exposure to traditional pro-China media and national identity but cannot explain the positive effect of exposure to new media on national identity formation.