就學理而言，我國政治發展面臨的四項議題縣市層級行政與立法部門分屬不同政黨、中央政府執政黨與地方政府多數黨分屬不同政黨、縣市長與鄉鎮市長分屬不同政黨，以及現今國民黨已無法同時掌控行政與立法部門正是屬於「分立性政府」 (divided government)的爭議。鑑於分立性政府的意涵及其相關議題具有相當的重要性，本文旨在衍申分立性政府的概念，將其進一步區分為「水平式分立性政府」 (horizontal divided government)與「垂直式分立性政府」 (vertical divided government)兩種面向，以擴大此概念的適用性，作為未來比較研究的基礎。本文回顧美國政治學界研究文獻，檢視分立性政府與一致性政府的肇因與運作情形。關於分立性政府的成因，研究者嘗試提供各項因素以解釋選民「分裂選票投票行為」 (split-ticket voting)，然而迄今尚未發展出周全的解釋。至於分立性政府是否導致政策滯塞和僵局，亦是學者們爭議的焦點。當然，關於分立性政府的肇因及其所導致的影響，皆是值得研究者繼續關注的課題。結語中，本文除扼要概述分立性政府與一致性政府的異同之外，亦將提出分立性政府相關議題對於台灣地區政治發展情勢的啟示。 In theory, there are four critical divided government issues in Taiwan’s political development, including the control of the executive and legislative branches of county/city governments by different political parties, control of the central-government and county/city-government administration by different parties, the control of the county/city-government and township-level administration by different parties, and the Kuomintang (KMT) being unable to control the executive and legislative branches at the central level. As the phenomenon of divided government has played a significant role in various theories of public policy and political behavior, this pilot study extends the concept to horizontally and vertically divided government. Furthermore, this study concentrates on both the causes and consequences of divided and unified government. Concerning the causes of divided government, American researchers have developed distinct approaches to the study of split-ticket voting behavior. None have provided a comprehensive explanation, however. The question about the consequences of divided government-does policy gridlock arise under divided government? -also remains contentious. This essay judges how far these political scientists take us toward a theory that explicates the causes and consequences of divided government, and suggests possible approaches to Taiwan politics in future studies. In conclusion, I make some predictions about the plausible development of divided government in Taiwan.