從一九九○年代初開始，印度教民族主義份子便藉著鼓吹「印教徒特性」的主張來動員印度教認同。以印度教民族主義為主要念的印人民黨在一九九六年成為印度第的一大黨，兩年後更成功地組成具印度教民族主義色彩的中央政府。以「印度教徒特性」為核心理念，並進而提出「一個國家、一個民族及一種文化」的國家認同主張，是印度人民黨得以崛起的原因，卻也彰顯出作為印度教民族主義政黨所具有的侷限性。為了保有中央的執政權力及吸引溫和選民，印度人民黨必須淡化它的衝突形象並暫時放棄爭議性的主張。本文除了回顧印度教民族主義的主要發展及印度人民黨的崛起過外，將進一步檢視印度教認同在印這樣一個具宗教多元性的國家中的功能與侷限。 Since the early 1990s, the Hindu nationalists have mobilized Hindu identity by advocating a philosophy of Hindutva (Hinduness). The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the political wing of the Hindu nationalist movement, emerged as India’s largest party in 1996. Two years later, a Hindu nationalist government led by the BJP was formed at the Centre for the first time. The BJP used Hindutva as a core concept and called for “one nation, one people, and one culture.” The adoption of Hindu identity, as both a political doctrine and a national identity, paved the way for the growth of the BJP over the last decade. However, it also demonstrated the limits of the BJP as a Hindue nationalist party. In order to retain power and attract a more moderate electorate, the BJP has to temper its confrontational stance and temporarily abandon controversial issues. In addition to highlighting the BJP’s shift away from the margins of Indian politics towards a more central position, the paper will also attempt to trace significant developments in the Hindu nationalist movement since the early 1990s, and explore the functions and limitations of Hindu identity in a multi-religious country like India.