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    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 臺灣史研究所  > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/123681
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/123681


    Title: 奇蹟的背後:台灣的人類發展與不平等(1960-2012年)
    Behind the miracle: human development and inequality in Taiwan, 1960-2012
    Authors: 郝凱揚
    Hawkins, Nicholas B.
    Contributors: 李為楨
    李福鐘

    Lee Wei-chen
    Li Fu-chung

    郝凱揚
    Hawkins, Nicholas B.
    Keywords: 人類發展
    福祉
    自由
    經濟奇蹟
    聯合國
    世界銀行
    Human development
    Well-being
    Freedom
    Economic miracle
    United Nations
    World Bank
    Date: 2014
    Issue Date: 2019-06-03 13:04:49 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 台灣因第二次世界大戰後的卓越經濟發展而著名:這就是常常被提及的經濟「奇蹟」。台灣的經濟成就不勝枚舉,舉凡有迅速的工業化、持續多年的百分之六到七的GDP成長率、特高的儲蓄率、健全的基礎設施投資、高度的教育及健康水準等等。更令人敬佩的是,成長的益處普遍由大眾共享:台灣於奇蹟期間一直維持著相當低的不平等程度。
    許多研究試圖解釋台灣經濟奇蹟的原因何在。以世界銀行為代表的傳統觀點,主要歸功於政府確保適合發展的穩定宏觀經濟環境的政策。其他人則針對東亞的經濟成就提出文化相關的解釋,認為是由於儒家思想重視勤勞和教育。有人甚至覺得威權主義的政權促進了東亞的發展。
    本論文主張,以上的解釋太過著重於專家的角色而忽略一般民眾的貢獻。另外,每當論及發展,這些解釋似乎指的只是經濟成長,然而發展的意思應該是增進福祉才對。定義福祉的方法有很多,但關鍵點在於,人們應當享有權利決定自己要追求的是哪一種福祉。因台灣的領導人所達成的高度成長而予以讚美,卻漠視與經濟奇蹟並存的政治壓迫與戒嚴,這是不對的;假定GDP的成長必定會改善人們的生活也是不對的。在第二章,我探討人類發展,以此作為一種新方法,改善傳統以收入為主的經濟發展論。在第三章,我評論台灣經濟奇蹟的主流觀點並對台灣的成功提出不一樣的解釋。在第四章,我探究福祉的各種指標是否在奇蹟之後繼續改善。
    Taiwan is famous for its spectacular economic growth after World War II, which has often been called a “miracle.” The list of Taiwan’s economic achievements is long: it includes rapid industrialization, sustained annual GDP growth of six to seven percent, high savings rates, strong investment in infrastructure, and high levels of education and health, to name a few. Even more impressively, the benefits of growth were widely shared: Taiwan had very low levels of inequality throughout the miracle.
    Many studies have sought to explain the causes of Taiwan’s economic miracle. The conventional view, as expressed by the World Bank, gives a great deal of credit to government policies that ensured a stable macroeconomic environment for growth. Others have offered cultural explanations for East Asia’s economic success, citing the Confucian emphasis on hard work and education. Some even suggest that East Asian development was facilitated by authoritarian government.
    This thesis argues that such explanations focus too much on the role of experts and give short shrift to the contributions of ordinary people. Also, they tend to speak of development as if it refers only to economic growth, when it really ought to mean increased well-being. There are many ways to define well-being, but the key point is that people deserve the right to decide what sort of well-being they want to pursue. It is wrong to praise Taiwan’s leaders for achieving high growth while ignoring the fact that Taiwan’s economic miracle took place during a period of political repression and martial law, and it is also wrong to assume that GDP growth necessarily improves people’s lives. In the first chapter, I explore human development as an improvement on the traditional income-centered approach to economic development. In the second chapter, I critique the mainstream views of Taiwan’s economic miracle and offer some alternative explanations of Taiwan’s success. In the final chapter, I examine whether various aspects of well-being have continued to improve in the years after the miracle.
    Reference: 一、中文書籍
    戴寶村。《台灣政治史》。台北:國立編譯館,2006年。
    黃昭堂(黃英哲譯)。《台灣總督府》。台北:前衛,2004年。
    薛化元。《台灣地位關係文書》。台北:國立編譯館,2007年。

    二、外文書籍
    Easterly, William. The White Man’s Burden: Why the West’s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill And So Little Good. New York: Penguin, 2006.
    Easterly, William. The Tyranny of Experts: Economists, Dictators, and the Forgotten Rights of the Poor. New York: Basic Books, 2013.
    Herring, George C. From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations since 1776. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
    Huntington, Samuel P. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.
    Pack, Howard. “Technological Change and Growth in East Asia: Macro and Micro Perspectives.” In Rethinking the East Asian Miracle, edited by Joseph E. Stiglitz and Shahid Yusuf, 95-142. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
    Sen, Amartya. Development As Freedom. 1999. Reprint, New York: Anchor Books, 2000.
    Shepherd, John Robert. Statecraft and Political Economy on the Taiwan Frontier, 1600-1800. 1993. Reprint, Taipei: SMC Publishing, 1995.
    Tucker, Nancy Bernkopf. Strait Talk: United States-Taiwan Relations and the Crisis with China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009.
    ul Haq, Mahbub. Reflections on Human Development. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
    Wade, Robert. Governing the Market: Economic Theory and the Role of Government in East Asian Industrialization. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.
    Williamson, John. “A Short History of the Washington Consensus.” In The Washington Consensus Reconsidered: Towards a New Global Governance, edited by Narcis Serra and Joseph E. Stiglitz, 14-30. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
    World Bank. The East Asian Miracle: Economic Growth and Public Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
    石田浩。《台湾経済の構造と展開:台湾は「開発独裁」のモデルか》。東京:大月書店,2003年。

    三、統計數據
    Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Social Trends 2002. http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Previousproducts/4102.0Contents12002.
    International Monetary Fund. World Economic Outlook Database, April 2014 edition. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2014/01/weodata/index.aspx.
    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. OECD Better Life Index. http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org.
    Taiwan National Development Council. Taiwan Statistical Data Book 2012. http://www.ndc.gov.tw/en/News_Content.aspx?n=607ED34345641980&sms=B8A915763E3684AC&s=3BD76EF60CB6C9E8.
    行政院主計總處。〈我國性別平權綜合指數〉。https://www.stat.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=33332&CtNode=6020&mp=4.
    行政院主計總處。《2012年社會指標統計年報》。2013年。http://ebook.dgbas.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=34917&ctNode=5971&mp=103.
    行政院主計總處。《國情統計通報》第105號,2013年6月6日,http://www.stat.gov.tw/public/Data/366166371.pdf.
    中華民國統計資訊網。《總體統計資料庫》,http://statdb.dgbas.gov.tw/pxweb/dialog/statfile9L.asp.

    四、官方報告
    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. How’s Life? Measuring Well-Being. 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264121164-en.
    Stiglitz, Joseph E., Amartya Sen, and Jean-Paul Fitoussi. Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress. Paris, 2009. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/118025/118123/Fitoussi+Commission+report.
    United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report (all years from 1990 to present). http://hdr.undp.org/en/global-reports.
    World Bank. World Development Report (all years from 1978 to present). http://wdronline.worldbank.org.
    World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2004: Changing History. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004.

    五、期刊論文
    Alkire, Sabina. “Dimensions of Human Development.” World Development 30:2 (2002), 181-205.
    Anand, Sudhir, and Amartya Sen. “The Income Component of the Human Development Index.” Journal of Human Development 1:1 (2000): 83-106.
    Atkinson, Anthony B. “On the Measurement of Inequality.” Journal of Economic Theory 2 (1970): 244-263.
    Chakravarty, Satya R. “A Generalized Human Development Index.” Review of Development Economics 7:1 (2003), 99-114.
    Chen Lung-chu and W. M. Reisman. “Who Owns Taiwan? A Search for International Title.” The Yale Law Journal 81:4 (1972), 599-671.
    Kim Jong-Il and Lawrence Lau. “The Sources of Economic Growth of the East Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.” Journal of Japanese and International Economics 8 (1994), 235-271.
    Klugman, Jeni, Francisco Rodríguez, and Hyung-Jin Choi. “The HDI 2010: New Controversies, Old Critiques.” UNDP Human Development Research Paper, 2011. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdrp_2011_01.pdf.
    Lu, Jui-Fen Rachel and William C. Hsiao. “Does Universal Health Insurance Make Health Care Unaffordable? Lessons From Taiwan.” Health Affairs 22:3 (2012), 77-88.
    McGillivray, Mark. “The Human Development Index: Yet Another Redundant Composite Development Indicator?” World Development 19:10 (1991), 1461-1468.
    Mason, Andrew and Ronald Lee. “Reform and Support Systems for the Elderly in Developing Countries: Capturing the Second Demographic Dividend.” Genus 62:2 (2006), 11-35.
    Ocampo, José Antonio. “The Latin American Debt Crisis in Historical Perspective.” Network paper, Columbia University Initiative for Policy Dialogue, 2013. http://policydialogue.org/files/publications/The_Latin_American_Debt_Crisis_in_Historical_Perspective_Jos_Antonio_Ocampo.pdf.
    Ravallion, Martin. “Troubling Tradeoffs in the Human Development Index.” Journal of Development Economics 99 (2012), 201-209.
    Young, Alwyn. “Lessons from the East Asian NICs: A Contrarian View.” European Economic Review 38 (1994), 964-973.
    黃智慧。〈台灣的日本觀解析(1987- ):族群與歷史交錯下的複雜系統現象〉。《思想》第14期(2010年),53-98頁。
    蕭新煌。〈台灣社會的貧富差距與中產階級問題〉。《台灣民主季刊》4:4(2017年),143-150頁。

    六、報紙文章
    Hua Chang-i. “Home Ownership Rate Is Misleading.” Taipei Times, 14 April 2010. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2010/04/14/2003470538.
    Kristof, Nicholas. “A Dictatorship That Grew Up.” The New York Times, 16 February 1991. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/02/16/magazine/a-dictatorship-that-grew-up.html.
    Lohr, Steve. “East Asia: The Face of Economic Optimism.” The New York Times, 7 October 1985. http://www.nytimes.com/1985/10/07/business/east-asia-the-face-of-economic-optimism.html.

    七、其他
    International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Articles of Agreement. 1944. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/BODINT/Resources/278027-1215526322295/IBRDArticlesOfAgreement_English.pdf.
    United Nations General Assembly. Declaration on the Right to Development. Resolution adopted 4 December 1986, A/RES/41/128.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    台灣史研究所
    97158018
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0097158018
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/THE.NCCU.Taiwan.001.2019.A04
    Appears in Collections:[臺灣史研究所 ] 學位論文

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